soil

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soil as a natural resource-occurence,types,exploitation.

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Soil As A Resource:

Soil As A Resource

Introduction:

Introduction Top most layer of earth crust consisting of organic and inorganic matters is called soil. Soil is a renewable resource. Soil gives support and nourishment to plants and thus helps them to grow. Soil is the base of agriculture. The survival of all animals, their nourishment and nurture all depends on the soil.

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Eight major types according to Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). Alluvial soils Black soils Red soils Laterite soils Desert soils Mountain soils Saline and Alkaline soils Peaty and Marshy soils Types Of Soils

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Different types of soils

Alluvial Soils:

Alluvial Soils Most widely spread: The entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil. Piedmont plains in the upper reaches of the river valley, the soils are coarse are Duars , Chos and Terai . According to age, alluvial soil can be classified into old alluvial ( Bangar ) and new alluvial ( Khadar )

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Ideal for sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops So, the regions of alluvial soil are thickly populated and intensively cultivated Alluvial Soils

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Transported soils. Coarser in upper section and finest in delta. Light to dark in colour . Rich in Potash & Humus. Poor in Phosphorous and Nitrogen. Highly fertile, good for all crops ( kharif & rabi ). Crops : Rice, Wheat, Sugarcane, Cotton, Jute . Areas : Punjab, Haryana, U.P, Bihar, W.B, Assam, Parts of Orissa, delta regions of Southern India. Characteristics :

Black Soils:

Black Soils The soil is black in colour because it is volcanic in origin They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture. In addition, they are rich in soil nutrients Climatic condition along with the parent rock material are the important factors for the formation of black soil.

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They are rich in iron, lime, calcium, Magnesium, carbonates, and alumina. Areas: Deccan Trap which includes: Maharastra , W n M.P, Parts of A.P, N n Karnataka, Parts of T.N and Rajasthan. Crops : Cotton, Sugarcane, Groundnut, Millets, Rice, Wheat, Oilseeds . Black Soils

Red soils :

Red soils Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in the areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of Deccan Plateau. The red colour is because of the diffusion of iron in the form of iron oxide in the crystalline and metamorphic rocks It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.

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Characteristics: Porous and Friable. Rich in iron, small amount of Humus. More sandy and less clayey. Area : Tamil Nadu, Southern Karnataka, parts of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Eastern Rajasthan, North eastern States. Crops : Ragi , Groundnut, millet, Tobacco, Potato, Rice, Wheat, Sugarcane.

Laterite Soils:

Laterite Soils Formed under high temperature and rainfall with wet and dry spell. After taking soil conservation measures, this soil is suitable for tea, coffee, cashew nut etc. The humus content in the laterite soil is less because the micro-organisms and decomposers get destroyed in the high temperature.

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Characteristics: Silica is leached due to high rainfall. Becomes hard when exposed to atmosphere. Used as building material. Rich in Iron Areas : Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, and the hilly areas of Orissa and Assam. Crops : Tea, Coffee, Cashew, Rubber and Coconut.

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Laterite Soils

Desert soils :

It originated by Mechanical disintegration & wind deposit. It Contains soluble salts. Its Composition is 90% sand & 5% clay. It covers 1.4 Lakh sqkm . Of India. It is porous and coarse. Desert soils

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Characteristics: Rich in Nitrates & Phosphates. Poor in Nitrogen & Humus. Friable, sandy & low moist content. Areas: Arid and Semi arid regions of Rajasthan, S n Haryana, Punjab, and Gujarat. Crops: Drought resistant crops like millets and barley. Desert Soil

Mountain Soils:

Mountain Soils They are Found in hill slopes. Mountain soils are formed by deposition of organic matter from forest. They are rich in humus. They are poor in Potash and Lime.

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Areas: Assam, Kashmir, Sikkim & Arunachal Pradesh. Crops: Tea, Coffee, Spices & Tropical Fruits. Mountain Soil

Peaty and Marshy Soils:

Peaty and Marshy Soils Peaty soils originate in the humid regions due to the accumulation of large amount of organic matter in the soils. These are generally submerged under water during the rainy season and are utilised for paddy cultivation afterwards. Sometimes these soils are highly toxic to plant life as they contain ferrous and aluminium sulphates in considerable amounts. 

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The soils are black and heavy and highly acidic. Areas: Kottayam & Alleppey in Kerala, Coastal Orissa, Sundarbans of W.B

Saline and Alkaline soils :

Saline and Alkaline soils The accumulation of salts makes the soil infertile and renders it unit for agriculture. Some of the salts are transported in solution by the rivers and canals, which percolates in the sub- soils of the plains.

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Contains salts like Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium. Infertile, unfit for cultivation. Sandy to loamy in texture. Areas: Parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, U.P & Maharashtra. Saline Alkaline

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Soil Erosion: Removal of top soil by different agents.

Causes:

Causes Deforestation Overgrazing. Faulty method of Agriculture. Erosion by rivers. Removal of top soil (for bricks, pots, tiles etc) Shifting cultivation.

Effects:

Effects Loss of cultivable land. Reduction in soil fertility. Causes silting & may change river course. Results in lots of run off. Reduces percolation of ground water.

 The importance of soil:

  T he importance of soil Life , civilization depend on planet's soil and water resources

Measures to Soil Conservation:

Measures to Soil Conservation

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1)Plant Trees : We all know that roots of trees firmly hold on to the soil. As trees grow tall, they also keep rooting deeper into the soil. As the roots of trees spread deep into the layers of soil, they hold it tightly, thus preventing soil erosion. Soil under a vegetative cover is saved from erosion due to wind as this cover acts as a wind barrier. Trees With Without

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2) Build Terraces: Terracing is a very good method of soil conservation. A terrace is a leveled section of a hilly cultivated area. Terracing gives the landmass a stepped appearance, thus slowing the washing down of soil. Dry stonewalling is a method used to create terraces in which stone structures are made without using mortar for binding.

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3)No-till Farming: The process of preparing soil for plowing is known as tilling. No-till farming is a way of growing crops without disturbing it through tillage. The process of tilling is beneficial in mixing fertilizers in the soil, making rows and preparing the surface for sowing. But the tilling activity can lead to compaction of soil, loss of organic matter in the soil and the death of soil organisms.

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4)Contour Plowing : This practice of farming on slopes takes into account the slope gradient and the elevation of soil along the slope. It is the method of plowing across the contour lines of a slope. This method helps in slowing the water runoff and prevents soil from being washed away along the slope. Contour plowing also helps in percolation of water in the soil.

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5) Crop Rotation : Some pathogens tend to build up in soil if the same crops are cultivated again and again. Continuous cultivation of the same crop also leads to imbalance in the fertility demands of the soil. To save the soil from these adverse effects, crop rotation is practiced. It is a method of growing a series of dissimilar crops in an area. Crop rotation also helps in the improvement of soil structure and fertility.

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6)Maintain Soil pH : The contamination of soil by addition of acidic or basic pollutants and due to acid rains has an adverse effect on the soil pH. Soil pH is an indicator of the level of nutrients in soil. The uptake of nutrients by plants also depends on the pH of soil. Maintaining the correct value of soil pH, is thus essential for soil conservation.

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7)Water the Soil : We water plants, we water the crops, but do we water the soil? We seldom do. Watering soil is a good measure of soil conservation. Watering the soil along with plants growing in it is a way to prevent soil erosion caused by wind.

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8)Promote Helpful Soil Organisms: Nitrogen-fixing and denitrifying bacteria are important constituents of the nitrogen cycle. They live in soil. Bacteria and fungi help keep the soil healthy. Organisms like earthworms help decompose organic material in the soil . These helpful organisms boost soil fertility and help in soil conservation. Vermicomposting

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Hope you enjoyed it!! Made By:- Parvaz Virk X B

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