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WIreless elecTRICITY The story started late one night a few years ago. It was probably the sixth time that month that MIT Professor Marin Soljacic was awakened by his mobile phone beeping battery low. At that time it occurred to him that there is electricity wired all through his house, office-everywhere. He think about- how it is possible to use electricity without using wires… Eureka! Coupled Resonators Story behind WITRICITY Slide 4: Wednesday, July 14, 2010 4 wireless electricity Electro magnetism Resonant magnetic coupling resonance Basics of WITRICITY BASICS : BASICS Electricity is a general term that encompasses a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. Magnetism is a force that acts at a distance due to a magnetic field. This field is caused by moving electrically charged particles or is inherent in magnetic objects such as magnet. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 5 Slide 6: Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 6 Electromagnetic induction is the production of voltage across a conductor moving through a magnetic field. Electromagnetism is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature, along with strong interaction, weak interaction and gravitation. It is the force that causes the interaction between electrically charged particles; the areas in which this happens are called electromagnetic fields Energy/Power Coupling: Energy coupling occurs when an energy source has a means of transferring energy to another object Slide 7: Resonance :is the tendency of a system to oscillate with larger amplitude at some frequencies than at others. These are known as the system's resonant frequencies (or resonance frequencies). At these frequencies, even small periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude oscillations Resonant Magnetic Coupling: Magnetic coupling occurs when two objects exchange energy through their varying or oscillating magnetic fields. Resonant coupling occurs when the natural frequencies of the two objects are approximately the same. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 7 Slide 8: Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 8 The Transfer of Electricity from one place to another without wires is known as “Witricity”. There is witricity power sources(transmitter) and capture devices(receiver). Power source provides power to the devices where as capture device captured it to work. Power source and capture devices are specially designed magnetic resonators. Magnetic resonators efficiently transfer power over large distance via the magnetic near-field. WITRICITy technology Near field : Near field Near field is a wireless transmission technique over distances comparable to or a few times the diameter of devices. Near field is usually magnetic. Near field energy is non radiative .but some radiative and resistive losses will occur. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 9 Coupled resonators : Coupled resonators Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy. It exchange energy strongly ,while interacting weakly with living beings and other environmental objects. Coupled resonators are said to be operate in strongly coupled regime to avoid material absorption and radiative loss. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 10 Strong coupling : Strong coupling Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 11 Strength of interaction is very high. Coupling constant ‘g’>=1 Energy transfer is very efficient. The rate of energy transfer is substantially higher than rate of energy lose. MIT teams behind witricity technology : MIT teams behind witricity technology Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 12 The first experiment of witricity, the concept of wireless electricity, was conducted in the year 2006, by researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Assistant Professor of this team of researchers was Marin Soljacic. 2007: A physics research group, led by Prof. Marin Soljacic,at MIT, wirelessly power a 60W light bulb with 40% efficiency at a 2 meters (6.6 ft) distance using two 60 cm-diameter coils Diagram of power source and capture device : Diagram of power source and capture device Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 13 Power source is connected to ac power. Bulb is connected to capture device. Blue lines represent the magnetic near field induced by the power source. Yellow lines represent the flow of energy from the source to the capture coil. This powers light bulb. The magnetic field can wrap around the obstacle between power source and capture coil. Slide 14: Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 14 Slide 15: Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 15 Slide 16: Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 16 Slide 17: Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 17 Witricity technology is more than… : Witricity technology is more than… Traditional magnetic induction. Radiative power transfer. Tesla’s vision of a wireless world. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 18 Slide 19: Used in power transformers. conductive coils transmit power to each other wirelessly, over very short distance. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 19 Traditional magnetic induction An electric tooth brush uses traditional magnetic induction to recharge its batteries Slide 20: Radio frequency energy is used for wireless power transfer. Radiated power is wasted into free space Need line of sight. Harmful. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 20 Radiative power transfer Microwave oven utilizes radiation to cook foods Slide 21: Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 21 Tesla’s vision of a wireless world Nikola Tesla the most well known scientist had a vision of wireless world. In which wireless electric power and communication would reach around the world, delivering information and power. Features and benefits : Features and benefits Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 22 Witricity’s Technology Technology Benefit Witricity technology can provide… : Witricity technology can provide… Direct wireless power-within the range of witricity power source Automatic wireless charging- both in and out of range of its witricity power source. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 23 Applications : Applications Consumer electronics Industrial Transportation… Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 24 WITRICITY APPLICATIONS : WITRICITY APPLICATIONS Automatic wireless charging of mobile electronics in home, car, office,...while devices are in use and mobile. Direct wireless powering of stationary devices…eliminating expensive custom wiring, unsightly cables and “wall-wart” power supplies. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 25 wireless electricity CONSUMER ELECTRONICS Application continues………… : Application continues………… Robots, package machinery, assembly machinery, machine tools. Direct wireless power and communication interconnections at points of use in harsh environments. Direct wireless power for wireless sensors and actuators, eliminating the need for expensive power wiring or battery replacement and disposal. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 26 INDUSTRIAL Application continues…………… : Application continues…………… Automatic wireless charging for existing electric vehicle classes: golf carts, industrial vehicles. Automatic wireless charging for future hybrid and all-electric passenger and commercial vehicles, at home, in parking garages, at fleet depots, and at remote kiosks. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 27 TRANSPORTATION Other Applications : Other Applications Direct wireless power interconnections and automatic wireless charging for implantable medical devices . Automatic wireless charging and for high tech military systems. Direct wireless powering and automatic wireless charging of smartcards. Direct wireless powering and automatic wireless charging ofconsumer Appliance, mobile robots, etc. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 28 ADVANTAGES : ADVANTAGES No need of line of sight. No need of power cables and batteries. Does not interfere with radio waves. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 29 Wastage of power is small . Negative health implications. Highly efficient than electromagnetic induction Less costly. Slide 30: Wireless power transmission can be possible only in few meters. Efficiency is only about 40%. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 30 Disadvantages FUTURE OF WITRICITY : FUTURE OF WITRICITY Teams’ next aim is to get a robotic vacuum or a laptop working, charging devices placed any where in the room and even robots on factory floors. In another 3 to 5 years time. they will come up with a witricity for commercial use. Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 31 Slide 32: Wednesday, July 14, 2010 wireless electricity 32 THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.