Category: Education

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By: preethusyam (91 month(s) ago)

Good morning sir , i am Preethu syam. please send me your excellent slide on autism to ID is

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Slide 1:

Beyond words..

We will be talking about..:

What is autism Etiology Characteristic features of autism Statistics Autism in India Early diagnosis Treatment and interventions Art Therapy Benefits and diagnosis through art Drawing analysis We will be talking about..

What is Autism ?:

It is a severely incapacitating life long developmental disorder that typically occurs in the first three years of life. It causes impairment or disturbance in three main areas Social skills, communicative (verbal as well as non-verbal) skills and in their repetitive and restricted behaviors. What is Autism ?

Cause/ Etiology of autism:

The cause of autism is multifactorial Structural or functional damage to the central nervous system. Genetic factors play a significant role. There is 60-90% concordance rate for monozygotic twins and less than 5% concordance rate for dizygotic twins. Also “You cannot cause a child to be autistic” Cause/ Etiology of autism

Characteristic of child with autism :

A child with autism looks just like any other child, but has distinctive behavior patterns. Like: Unusual Speech patterns Repetitive behaviors Social, verbal and communication deficits. Echolalia Little or no eye contact Limited joint attention Delay in use of words Rages may accompany disruptions of routine The following may indicate a heightened awareness and sensitivity to some stimuli : 1. Visual scanning of hand and finger movements 2. Mouthing of objects 3. Rubbing of surfaces Characteristic of child with autism

Statistics for Autism:

Experts estimates that 2-6 children out of every 1000 have autism(world wide) Males are four times more likely to have autism than females. prevalence of autism in the U.S. at approximately 1 in 150 people. In India presently 2 million people are suffering from autism. It is third most common developmental disorder, more common than down’s syndrome. Statistics for Autism

Autism in India :

The prevalence rate of autism in India is 1 in 250. T he government only recognized the existence of the disorder in 2001 (in the 1980s there were reports that Autism did not exist in India) (Daley, 2004). In October 2007, India signed the UN Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities, promising to “promote, protect, and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity (Action for Autism and Open Door, 2008).” With its social attitudes, governmental reluctance to accept the disorder, and environmental conditions, India has many barriers to providing high quality education and treatment to children with Autism. However, if the country’s acceptance of the UN Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the “Nirmaya program”(where the differently abled children gets all the medical claim) are any indication, India is taking some steps in the right direction. Even though some policies have been made implementation is not there. Autism in India


The disability certificate for autism hardly been made, the examiner writes MENTAL RETARDATION over the certificate instead of autism. Tremendous lack of awareness and misunderstanding about autism among the medical professionals, who may either misdiagnose or under diagnose the condition Dearth of special schools. CONTD..


In 1992, the American Psychiatric Association released the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV), which refined diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder. Of the children at risk for autism can be facilitating by the use of the Checklist For Autism in Toddler (CHAT), a screening instrument. ADOS and MCHAT are also used And to assess the level of autism PEP and APEP are used. THE EARLY THE DAIGNOSIS THE BETTER IT WILL BE. Diagnosis

Treatment :

Considerable advances have been made in the treatment of autism, especially within the area of educational, psychosocial, and biological. There is compelling evidence that intensive behavioral therapy, beginning before 3 years of age is successful both in improving language and later social functioning. Parent education, training and support is always indicated as important Pharmacotherapy for certain target symptoms may be helpful. Children with autism require alternate educational approaches , there are now music and art therapy are also extensively used. We will here focus on the ART THERAPY Treatment

Slide 13:

“ They may express themselves and their inner world through the magic of paints, brushes and create wonderful piece of art.”

Researches :

Preference for drawing inanimate objects Celani (2002). Little differentiation in human figures Lee and Hobson (2006) Drawings by part Cox (2005) Slow progression (Anath golomb, jill dennehy and Claire golomb). Sameness in their drawings. Researches

Slide 15:

Only one in 100 will have interest in art or drawing. There the art therapy can also work for assessment. On studying their drawings a lot of information can be taken. Their emotions and feeling for particular object or person can be identified for eg happiness, fear and they use different colors to show it. Every child follows a same theme in his/her drawing.

Slide 16:

Case study

The Albert Hall (10) Source: Casson, Sir Hugh (1987) Stephen Wiltshire Drawings :

The Albert Hall (10) Source: Casson , Sir Hugh (1987) Stephen Wiltshire Drawings Stephen Wiltshire Born 1977, of British parents 1987, when Stephen 10, he was the subject of a QED programme (BBC) Stephen also draws from memory having studied or ‘watched’ a building for 15 mins or so The beginning point of any drawing is random and lines appear “like a sewing machine”, the line spinning from the pencil point until finished. Series of drawings of buildings around London has gone on to have an agent, and many visits to major cities all over the world, leading to several publications

Slide 18:

Nadia Nadia is a child of an immigrant Ukranian family in England. She avoided eye contact and didn't respond when her mother smiled or cooed. But at 31/2, she picked up a pen and began to draw—not scribble, draw. Without any training, she created from memory sketches of galloping horses that only a trained adult could equal.

Nadia vs. Richard:

Nadia vs. Richard

Slide 20:

When 4-year-old children draw a horse, they typically choose to establish its contour and familiar features such as head, eyes, legs, and tail. Allan Snyder believes that these kids draw on a concept of the horse to re-create it rather than recalling the precise physical details, as savants do. A 3-year-old child named Nadia became famous for her ability to sketch spectacularly detailed horses and riders from memory. Savants like Nadia show the ability to perform unusual feats of illustration or calculation when they are younger than 6.

Art therapy :

Art gives children, teens and adults the opportunity to express powerful emotions. Children can often say more in pictures than they are able to articulate. In creating art, conflict, fear, or trauma is re-experienced, resolved and integrated. The creating and making of art in itself is a healing and therapeutic process. Art Therapy combines art and psychotherapy in a creative process using the created image as a foundation for self-exploration and understanding. Art therapy

Art therapy is used for situations in which::

Art therapy is used for situations in which: Words are difficult (ex: grief and loss). if there is a mind-body relationship to the nature of a person's trauma (ex: sexual abuse, PTSD), or for clients who are inept with words (ex: children, persons with a communication disability).

Art used in diagnosis:

Their artwork is a “mirror”, a “frozen moment of time” of the dynamic process, containing within it forms, colors, and other symbols of sensory, spiritual and intellectual perception, which can be “De-Coded”, and used to understand the process the child has gone through. This leads to accurate diagnosis, treatment, and understanding of the phenomena at hand. Art used in diagnosis

Slide 24:

A special educator told us about her student.. She asked him to draw a scene of Diwali and instead of showing it colorful and happy (as a normal child would have done), the child has drawn it BLACK, not just once every time he used to draw it black… On talking to his mother, she told that the boy is scared of Diwali because of crackers and the loud noise. Then the teacher worked on her fear for Diwali and now he uses other colors too in his Diwali picture.

Benefits of Art therapy:

Art therapy is beneficial to children with ASD due to their intense sensory needs. Art therapy offers visual and tactile self-stimulation, and is visual, concrete and hands-on. Art therapy helps treat: Imagination / abstract thinking deficits Sensory regulation and integration Emotions / Self-expression Development / Growth Recreation / Leisure Skills Drawing and art making is a useful tool for improving hand-eye coordination. Benefits of Art therapy

Drawing analysis :

Drawing analysis



Urmila Taneja special educator AFA, Open doors, Jasola Vihar:

Urmila Taneja special educator AFA, Open doors, Jasola Vihar How do you work on the rehabilitation of children with autism? It depends on the level of autism, for mild and moderate autism educational interventions, art, music, play are used, and with severe we to make teach in way a that they can atleast do their day to day work, like bathing, brushing etc Do they learn easily? No but once they learn they remember that for long. Some of them are very good learners. What is art therapy? How often is it used in India? It is not used as such for treatment purpose but yes it helps us to gain information about their feelings and emotion which they are unable to express. And also only a few of them have interest in drawing many of them aren't even able to hold the pencil or colors. But Music therapy is oftenly used because most of them like in the music. Mozart music is usually used.

Slide 33:

Any special feature about their drawings? Such children uses a particular theme in their drawings , for instance if she shows loneliness or isolation all the drawing will be reflecting it. Indian govt`s attitude for autism? They have very cold attitude towards it, even after declaring it separate from MR they doesn’t treat it separately. They still write MR on their disability certificate. So the children never gets the benefits provided by the govt. In our school only one or two child has the certificate of autism others don’t have any certificate. So on the organizational level only we provide them job and they get paid for it. So they are able to hold a job? Yes there are many success stories. One of them is working as a accountant with us, one is librarian and many others. Is inclusion or integrated or special school which is better? For mild suffers after initial special training they can be placed in normal school. And we have seen that they really progress. But for moderate and severe autism integrated education is better because in a class full of 40-60 children teacher would not be able to deal with children with autism and they need special attention.


Mrs Anita Sachdev ( Tanya`s Mom ) SPECIAL THANKS TO..

Slide 35:

Presented by: Annapurna & Parul

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