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LIFE PROCESS MADE BY- VIKALP SHARMA X A th

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NUTRITION INTRODUCTION: TYPES OF NUTRITION:- AUTUTROPHIC HETEROTROPHIC

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WHAT IS NUTRITION? IT IS THE INTAKE OF NUTRIENTS AS WELL AS UTILIZATION OF IT TO PRODUCE ENERGY

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AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION:- CHEMOTROPHS PHOTOTROPHS LITHOTROPHS HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION:- HOLOZOIC PARASITIC SAPHROPHYTIC TYPES OF NUTRITION:-

AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION:-:

AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION:- Autotrophic bacteria can produce their own food. ("Auto" means "self" and " troph " means "nourishment.") Five common types of autotrophic bacteria are cyanobacteria, green sulfur bacteria, purple bacteria, methanogens and halophiles

PHOTO,LITHO,CHEMOTROPHS:

PHOTO,LITHO,CHEMOTROPHS as an energy source, while lithotrophs make use of inor Autotrophs can be phototrophs , lithotrophs , or chemotrophs . Phototrophs use light ganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur, ammonium and ferrous iron, as reducing agents for biosynthesis and chemical energy storage. Chemotrophic species simply utilize electron donors as a source of energy, whether it be from organic or inorganic sources, however in the case of autotrophs, these electron donors come from inorganic chemical sources. Phototrophs and lithotrophs use a portion of the ATP produced during photosynthesis or the oxidation of inorganic compounds to reduce NADP+ to NADPH in order to form organic compounds .

HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION:

HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION HETEROTROPHIC ARE THOSE WHICH ARE DEPENDENT ON OTHER FOR FOOD AND LIVING.eg:-HUMAN BEINGS,ANIMALS etc

HOLOZOIC NUTRITION:

HOLOZOIC NUTRITION It refers to the mode of nutrition in which complex organic matter in the form of solid food is ingested,digested and then absorbed into the cells and utilised . eg : amoeba, frog, human beings.

NURTITION IN AMOBEA:

NURTITION IN AMOBEA Nutrition in amoeba is holozoic. Thus, solid food particles are ingested which are then acted upon by enzymes and digested. It is an omnivore, feeding on both plants and animals. Its diet includes bacteria, microscopic plants like the diatoms, minute algae, microscopic animals like other protozoa, nematodes and even dead organic matter. Since it is a unicellular organism, amoeba does not have any specialised structure or organ for the process of nutrition. It takes place through the general body surface with the help of pseudopodia.

Mechanism of Nutrition:

Mechanism of Nutrition Ingestion:- The food is ingested at the point where it comes in touch with the cell surface with the help of pseudopodia. Pseudopodia engulf the food into the cytoplasm. The process of ingestion takes about two minutes .

Digestion: :

Digestion: In Amoeba, food is digested in the food vacuole by digestive enzymes. The enzymes from surrounding cytoplasm enter into the food vacuole and break down the food into small and soluble molecules by chemical reactions. Thus, digestion in Amoeba takes place inside the food vacuole due to which the food dissolves (or food becomes soluble).

Absorption::

Absorption: The digested food present in the food vacuole of Amoeba is absorbed directly into the cytoplasm of Amoeba cell by diffusion. Since Amoeba consists of only one small cell, it does not require blood system to carry the digested food. The digested food just spreads out from the food vacuole into the whole of Amoeba cell. After absorption of food, the food vacuole disappears

Assimilation : :

Assimilation : A part of the food absorbed in Amoeba cell is used to obtain energy through respiration. The remaining part of absorbed food is used to make the parts of Amoeba cell which lead to the growth of Amoeba. Thus, on assimilating food Amoeba grows in size. And then Amoeba can reproduce by dividing into two daughter cells.

Egestion:

Egestion Amoeba has no fixed place (like anus) for removing the undigested part of food. When a considerable amount of undigested food collects inside Amoeba, then its cell membrane suddenly ruptures at any place and the undigested food is thrown out of the body of Amoeba.

Digestion in human:

Digestion in human

RESPIRATION :

RESPIRATION Respiration is the transport of oxygen from the clean air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. This is only part of the processes of delivering oxygen to where it is needed in the human body and removing carbon dioxide waste. Not all of the oxygen breathed in is replaced by carbon dioxide; around 15% to 18% of what we breathe out is still oxygen. The exact amount of exhaled oxygen and carbon dioxide varies according to the fitness, energy expenditure and diet of that particular person.

AEROBIC RESPIRATION:

AEROBIC RESPIRATION AEROBIC:- Aerobic respiration requires oxygen in order to generate energy (ATP). Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be processed and consumed as reactant, it is the preferred method of pyruvate breakdown in glycolysis and requires that pyruvate enter the mitochondrion in order to be fully oxidized by the Krebs cycle. The product of this process is energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), by substrate-level phosphorylation, NADH and FADH2 Simplified reaction: C6H12O6 ( aq ) + 6 O2 (g) → 6 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l) + heat ΔG = -2880 kJ per mole of C6H12O6

ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION :

ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Anaerobic respiration is a form of respiration using electron acceptors other than oxygen. Although oxygen is not used as the final electron acceptor, the process still uses a respiratory electron transport chain; it is respiration without oxygen. In order for the electron transport chain to function, an exogenous final electron acceptor must be present to allow electrons to pass through the system. In aerobic organisms, this final electron acceptor is oxygen. Molecular oxygen is a highly oxidizing agent and, therefore, is an excellent acceptor. In anaerobes, other less-oxidizing substances such as sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), or sulfur (S) are used. These terminal electron acceptors have smaller reduction potentials than O2, meaning that less energy is released per oxidized molecule. Anaerobic respiration is, therefore, in general energetically less efficient than aerobic respiration.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS:

PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis ( / foʊtoʊˈsɪnθəsɪs /; from the Greek φώτο - [photo-], "light," and σύνθεσις [synthesis], "putting together", "composition") is a process used by plants and other organisms to capture the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen. Hydrogen is combined with carbon dioxide (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. All living cells in turn use fuels derived from glucose and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to release the sun's energy and reform water and carbon dioxide in the process (cellular respiration ).

Occurrence :

Occurrence In plants, photosynthesis occurs mainly within the leaves. Since photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight, all of these substances must be obtained by or transported to the leaves. Carbon dioxide is obtained through tiny pores in plant leaves called stomata. Oxygen is also released through the stomata. Water is obtained by the plant through the roots and delivered to the leaves through vascular plant tissue systems. Sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll, a green pigment located in plant cell structures called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis.

Stages of Photosynthesis :

Stages of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis occurs in two stages . These stages are called the light reactions and the dark reactions . The light reactions take place in the presence of light . The dark reactions do not require direct light , however dark reactions in most plants occur during the day.

Chemical equation of photosynthesis:

Chemical equation of photosynthesis