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Organizational Behavior / Perception “ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”

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Organizational Behavior / Perception Perception “ The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process through which we interpret and organize sensory information to produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.” “ Perception is the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it within the framework of existing knowledge. “ A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

The Perceptual Process : 

Organizational Behavior / Perception The Perceptual Process Sensation An individual’s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment. Selection The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing. Organization The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage.” Translation The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.

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Organizational Behavior / Perception Receiving Stimuli (External & Internal) Selecting Stimuli External factors : Nature, Location,Size,contrast, Movement,repetition,similarity Internal factors : Learning, needs,age,Interest, Organizing Figure Background , Perceptual Grouping ( similarity, proximity, closure, continuity) Response Covert: Attitudes , Motivation, Feeling Overt: Behavior Perceptual Process Interpreting Attribution ,Stereotyping, Halo Effect, Projection

Factors influencing perception : 

Organizational Behavior / Perception Factors influencing perception A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside in the perceiver, in the object or target being perceived or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made.

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Organizational Behavior / Perception Factors influencing Perception Factors in the perceiver Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations Perception Factors in the Target Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity Similarity Factors in the situation Time Work Setting Social Setting

Perceptual organization : 

Organizational Behavior / Perception Perceptual organization It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable and identifiable patterns and whole objects. Certain factors are considered to be important contributors on assembling, organizing and categorizing information in the human brain. These are Figure ground Perceptual grouping

Figure-Ground Illustration : 

Organizational Behavior / Perception Figure-Ground Illustration Field-ground differentiation The tendency to distinguish and focus on a stimulus that is classified as figure as opposed to background.

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Organizational Behavior / Perception PERCEPTUAL GROUPING Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a meaningful and recognizable pattern. It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be inborn. Some factors underlying grouping are -continuity -closure -proximity -similarity

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Organizational Behavior / Perception Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others

Attribution Theory : 

Organizational Behavior / Perception Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. observation Interpretation Attribution of cause Consistency Consensus Distictinctiveness Individual behavior Internal External Internal External Internal External H L H L H L H –high L- Low

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Organizational Behavior / Perception Distictiveness Does this person behave in this manner in other situation Yes High Consistency No Low Consistency No Low Consensus Yes High Consensus YES Low Distinctiveness NO High Distinctiveness Consensus Do other person Behave in the Same manner? Consistency Does this person behave in this same manner at other times ? Internal Attribution External Attribution

Shortcuts in judging others : 

Organizational Behavior / Perception Shortcuts in judging others Selective Perception : People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience and attitudes. Halo Effect : Drawing a general impressions about an individual on the basis of a single charecteristics.

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Organizational Behavior / Perception Contrast Effect : Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are effected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. Projection : Attributing one's own characteristics to other people. Stereotyping : Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that persons belongs.

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