HEAT ENERGY: HEAT ENERGY What is HEAT?
Form of energy and measured in JOULES
Particles move about more and take up more room if heated – this is why things expand if heated
It is also why substances change from: solids liquids gases when heated
Visit www.worldofteaching.com for more free powerpoints Heat and Temperature: Heat and Temperature The temperature of an object tells us how HOT it is
Measured in degrees Celsius - °C
It is NOT the same as heat energy although the two quantities are related. e.g. a beaker of water at 60 °C is hotter than a bath of water at 40 °C BUT the bath contains more joules of heat energy Heating and Cooling: Heating and Cooling If an object has become hotter, it means that it has gained heat energy.
If an object cools down, it means it has lost energy
Heating and Cooling cont…: Heating and Cooling cont… Heat energy always moves from: HOT object COOLER object
e.g.Cup of water at 20 °C in a room at 30°C - gains heat energy and heats up – its temperature rises
Cup of water at 20 °C in a room at 10°C loses heat energy and cools down – its temperature will fall. HEAT ENERGY: HEAT ENERGY Energy transfer Conduction Convection Radiation Conduction: Conduction Heat is transferred through a material by being passed from one particle to the next
Particles at the warm end move faster and this then causes the next particles to move faster and so on.
In this way heat in an object travels from: the HOT end the cold end
Conduction cont…: Conduction cont… Occurs by the particles hitting each other and so energy is transferred.
Can happen in solids, liquids and gases,
Happens best in solids-particles very close together
Conduction does not occur very quickly in liquids or gases Conductors: Conductors Materials that conduct heat quickly are called conductors
All metals are good conductors of heat
Copper is a very good conductor of heat
Pans for cooking are usually made with a copper or aluminium bottom and plastic handles Insulators/poor conductors: Insulators/poor conductors Materials that conduct heat slowly or poorly are called insulators
Glass, wood, plastic and rubber are poor conductors (good insulators)
Nearly all liquids including water are poor conductors (good insulators)
Gases, including air are poor conductors,e.g., wool feels warm because it traps a lot of air
A fridge has insulation material round it to keep it cold – reduces amount of heat conducted to inside from the warmer room Convection: Convection Takes place in material where particles can move around inside the material, i.e. liquid or gas
The heat is carried by the particles themselves moving Convection currents
Occur because an area with warm particles expands and becomes less dense than the cooler areas nearby. The warm area rises. Cooler particles fall into the space left by the warm particles and convection current is set up Convection Currents: Convection Currents Hot liquids and gases expand and rise while the cooler liquid or gas falls 1. Hot air rises 2. Goes across 3. Then down 4. And across Convection cont…: Convection cont… The sun can cause large convection currents - WINDS
During daytime the land warms up more than the sea. The warm air rises over the land and cool air falls over the sea. So we feel a sea breeze.
Rising convection currents can be uses by glider pilots to keep their planes in the air and by birds to stay aloft.
Radiation: Radiation Transfer of heat directly form the source to the object by a wave, travelling as rays.
Heat radiation is also known as
All objects that are hotter than their surroundings give out heat as infra-red radiation
Heat transfer by radiation does not need particles to occur and is the only way energy can be transferred across empty space INFRA-RED RADIATION Emitters: Emitters Hotter objects emit (give out) heat
Different surfaces emit heat at different speeds
A dull black surfaces loses energy more quickly – it is a good radiator
A bright shiny or white surface is a poor radiator
Marathon runners need to keep warm at the end of races, covering in shiny blankets reduces radiation and therefore heat loss. Emitters of heat: Emitters of heat Bright shiny can Poor radiator Dull black can Good Radiator Absorbers: Absorbers Cooler objects absorb (take in) heat
Substances absorb heat at different speeds
Dull, black surfaces absorb heat quickly
Bright, shiny surfaces absorb heat slowly
In hot countries, people wear bright white clothes and paint their houses white to reduce absorption of energy from the sun.
Petrol storage tanks sprayed silver to reflect sun’s rays Absorbers: Absorbers Shiny, bright can Poor absorber Dull black can Good absorber Key Words: Key Words
Heat Radiation Convection Conduction Cold Insulator Conductor Temperature Emitter Absorber Transfer