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UN Expert Group Meeting on Measuring International Migration December 4 –7, 2006, UN New York MEASURING INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN THE PHILIPPINES (With Focus on Emigration Statistics) by Lina V. Castro


OUTLINE Background Existing Data Generation Systems Initiatives/Coordination Efforts in the PSS Recommendations and Future Directions

I. Background The Philippine Statistical System: 

I. Background The Philippine Statistical System a decentralized system that is composed of: a policy making and coordinating body, NSCB a general purpose statistics producing agency, NSO a statistical research and training center; and all government agencies engaged in the generation of statistical information

Framework of the PSS and How It is Coordinated: 

Framework of the PSS and How It is Coordinated

National Statistical Coordination Board: 

National Statistical Coordination Board serves as the highest policy making and coordinating body on statistical matters in the Philippines Functions formulates policies allocates responsibilities coordinates and prescribes standards in the generation of statistics designates statistical activities that will be undertaken by the government Develops and maintains statistical frameworks (e.g. PSNA) 

Existing Data Generation Systems in the PSS on Emigration: 

Existing Data Generation Systems in the PSS on Emigration Commission on Filipinos Overseas (CFO) Department of Tourism (DOT) Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) National Statistics Office (NSO)


Provide advice and assistance to the President and the Congress of the Philippines in the formulation of policies concerning or affecting Filipinos overseas; Develop and implement programs to promote the interests and well-being of Filipinos overseas; 1. Commission on Filipinos Overseas (CFO) Major Functions


Filipino Emigrants and permanent residents abroad Filipino Nationals who leave the country as spouses or other partners of foreign nationals Descendants of Filipinos overseas Filipino youths abroad Exchange visitor program participants CFO Clientele


Stock estimate on Overseas Filipinos Statistics on Filipino Emigrants a. Immigrants and Permanent Residents b. Filipino spouses and fiancées of foreign nationals Statistics




Permanent – immigrants or legal permanent residents abroad whose stay do not depend on work contracts Temporary – persons whose stay overseas is employment related, and who are expected to return at the end of their work contracts Irregular – those not properly documented or without valid residence or work permits, or who are overstaying in a foreign country Categories of Overseas Filipinos (CFO)






N = 1,238,934 Source : CFO Registered Filipino Emigrants


U.S.A. 869,973 (70.2 %) AUSTRALIA 86,223 (7.0 %) JAPAN 68,419 (5.5 %) CANADA 169,443 (13.7 %) U.K. 6,229 (0.5 %) GERMANY 9,427 (0.8 %) Distribution of Registered Emigrants by Major Countries of Destination (1981-2003)


SOURCES OF DATA Emigrant registration from CFO Statistics on departing overseas Filipino Workers from POEA Reports from Philippine Embassies and Consulates i. From the number of passports issued ii. Reports on inter-marriages iii. Assistance-to-Nationals cases iv. Head Count


SOURCES OF DATA Statistics on tourist arrivals from DOT Reports from Filipino associations and organizations overseas Reports from foreign Embassies and Consulates Census of foreign governments on their immigrant population


LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS Double counting No comprehensive and accurate data on returning Filipinos No comprehensive data on 2nd and 3rd generation overseas Filipinos No available comprehensive data yet on those who acquired foreign citizenships


AREAS FOR IMPROVEMENT Use of embarkation and disembarkation card of Bureau of Immigration to enhance collection of data on departing and returning Filipinos Use of census on families of overseas Filipinos Enhance the collection of data of Philippine Embassies and Consulates


AREAS FOR IMPROVEMENT Adopt a specific and common procedure and mechanism in gathering statistics on overseas Filipinos (particularly on the number of irregular migrants) Adopt common definition of terms and international statistical standards Analysis and interpretation of statistical data and flow Conduct an international conference on stock estimation of migrants


OUTBOUND PHILIPPINE RESIDENTS: “ … departures of Filipinos who are permanent residents of the Philippines as well as aliens and naturalized citizens of the Philippines with permanent residence in the country.” Source: DOT Statistical Report Department of Tourism: CONCEPTS

Travel and Tourism Statistical System (TTSS) by DOT: 

Travel and Tourism Statistical System (TTSS) by DOT Objectives To generate statistics on the profile and travel characteristics of outbound Philippine residents, former Filipinos and overseas Filipinos

TTSS Scope and Coverage: 

TTSS Scope and Coverage Included in Visitor Count Not Included in Visitor Count Tourist Transit /change plane Excursionist Aliens with pre-arranged Cruise passengers employment in Phil. Overseas Filipinos Immigrants Overseas Filipino workers Returning Residents

TTSS Scope and Coverage: 

TTSS Scope and Coverage Included in Outbound Not Included in Outbound Philippine Resident Count Philippine Resident Count Overseas Filipino Visitors/tourist to the Philippines Workers Overseas Filipinos Foreign Residents/Expatriates Filipino Residents

TTSS Sources of Data: 

TTSS Sources of Data Arrival/ Departure Card The Arrival/Departure Cards Processing Center (ADCPC) located in NAIA is responsible for the gathering, collection, encoding, data validation and downloading of initial files in NAIA, Cebu, Laoag, Davao, Subic and Clark. The downloaded data are further processed by the DOT’s TTSS.

TTSS Outputs: 

TTSS Outputs Statistics on visitor arrivals by country of residence demographic profile travel characteristics mode of travel port of entry nationality Statistics on the actual volume of Overseas Filipino permanent residents abroad Statistics on former Filipino citizens by country of residence Statistics on Outbound Philippine residents

TTSS Outputs: 

TTSS Outputs Statistics on Outbound Philippine Residents by port of disembarkation demographic profile travel characteristics by nationality mode of travel port of entry


3. Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) and Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) Shared OFW Database


Mandate Sec 20 of Republic Act No. 8042 Establishment of a Shared Government Information System for Migration DFA, Commission of Filipinos Overseas, DOLE, POEA, OWWA, DOT, DOJ, Bu of Immigration, NBI, NSO

Concepts & Definitions: 

Concepts & Definitions Migrant Worker or OFW - a person who is to be engaged, or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a state of which he/she is not a legal resident Documented OFW - a migrant worker with valid visa or work permit whose employment contract has been processed by POEA

Concepts & Definitions: 

Concepts & Definitions Undocumented OFW - a migrant worker with insufficient employment documents, whose employment contract has not been processed by POEA Name-Hire - an OFW who was able to secure an overseas employment without the assistance or participation of any recruitment agency

Concepts & Definitions: 

Concepts & Definitions Worker on-Leave - an OFW who is on vacation and is returning to the same employer (Balik Manggagawa) Seafarer - Any person who is employed or engaged in any capacity on board a seagoing ship navigating the foreign seas other than a government ship used for military or non-commercial purposes e.g. fishermen, cruise ship personnel and those serving on foreign maritime mobile offshore and drilling units.


What is the NSO Survey on Overseas Filipinos (SOF)? It is undertaken every year as rider to the October round of the Labor Force Survey (LFS) A nationwide survey that gathers information on Filipino citizens who left for abroad during the last five years 2


Provide estimates on the amount of cash received by the families Obtain national estimates on the number of overseas Filipinos 3


Who are the Overseas Workers? Filipinos who are presently and temporarily working overseas during the 5-year reference period. They may or may not have an existing work contract abroad. 4


20.2% 6


OCW = 0.93 M OCW = 1.10 M 17.7% 7


Majority of OFWs were in Asia... 11


Remittances from April to September 2004 amounted to 79.3 billion pesos… PhP 70.4 Billion PhP 79.3 Billion 13

Seven out of ten OFWs used banks in sending their cash remittances…: 

Seven out of ten OFWs used banks in sending their cash remittances… 14


More than 66 percent of the cash remittances came from OFWs in Asia… 15

Current Initiatives in the PSS: 

Current Initiatives in the PSS IAC on Shared Government Information System for Migration (IACSGISM) Objectives/Plan: (1) Make available among all concerned information contained in existing databases; (2) Linking of databases for free-flow of data exchanges and sharing Lead: Department of Foreign Affairs assisted by the CFO Issues: Lack of funds in implementing an integrated system Convened last in 2002, but hold small group meetings with CFO

Initiatives in the PSS: 

Initiatives in the PSS Central Bank’s IAC on Overseas Employment and Tourism Statistics Aimed at rationalizing data collection and harmonize measurement methodologies concerning Overseas Filipino Workers’ (OFW) incomes and international travel variables Initial outputs: Assessment of current practices and methodologies Average salaries of OFWs Common methodology in estimating economic contribution of OFWs

Most Current Initiatives: 

Most Current Initiatives NSCB Task Force on Overseas Filipino Statistics’ Terms of Reference Review and evaluate the data generation activities of all concerned agencies for monitoring the stock and flow of overseas Filipinos Review concepts and definitions Formulate recommendations on appropriate concepts and definitions and the estimation and utilization of data on the stock and flow of overseas Filipinos


Outputs Assessment of existing data generation systems including issues and concerns of the various agencies Proposed Operational Framework which situate the Overseas Filipino Workers(OFWs) among the Overseas Filipinos (OF), and OFs classified into: Permanent Temporary Proposed Standard Concepts and Definitions


Framework Permanent Overseas Filipinos Temporary Overseas Filipinos: Documented OFWs Visitors Undocumented Filipinos Others (Students and dependents of OFWs, etc.)

Concept of Overseas Filipinos: 

Concept of Overseas Filipinos Are Filipino nationals abroad categorized as: Migrant Workers Permanent residents or immigrants Former Filipino Citizens Holders of non-immigrant visas like tourists/visitors, students, medical patients, those on official mission and others Descendants of Filipino nationals overseas

Permanent Overseas Filipinos: 

Permanent Overseas Filipinos Shall mean Filipinos who are permanent residents abroad, including Filipino immigrants who are already citizens or are still Filipino citizens awaiting naturalization, recognition or admission

Temporary Overseas Filipinos: 

Temporary Overseas Filipinos Shall mean Filipinos whose stay overseas is employment related and are expected to return at the end of their work contracts (including their dependents), holders of non-immigrant visas like tourists/visitors, students, medical patients, those on official mission and others

Future Directions: 

Future Directions Optimal utilization of the A/D card to enhance collection of data on departing/returning Filipinos Revision of the A/D card to reflect information on length of stay and purpose of travel Adoption of common definitions Harmonization of reporting systems of DFA and CFO Revisiting the design of the NSO Survey of Overseas Filipinos Reactivating the IACSGISM


Thank You!

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