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The Bioclimatologic Features of Turkish Spa Resorts: 

The Bioclimatologic Features of Turkish Spa Resorts Prof Dr Hatice GÜRDAL Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology Department

Slide2: 

Spa treatment is performed as a complex cure system under the influence of local climato therapeutic factors, together with other comprehensive therapy methods

Slide3: 

At first , each guest who came to health resort, exposes to the climatic conditions

Slide4: 

The climatic features of the health – spa resort have a great influence on human health and recreation.

Slide5: 

Meteorological analysis and interpretation of thermo physiologically effectiveness of health spa resort climate is important

Slide6: 

Thus medical doctors are able to obtain better information about the special bioclimatic features of the resorts, to agree them with the individual physiological parameters of the guest and develop a cure therapy programs

Slide7: 

Turkey lies between the northern 36-42 latitudes and the eastern 26-45 longitude

Slide8: 

Turkey has Subtropical Climate in Mediterranean Region

Slide10: 

There are mainly 7 geographical regions

The Climate Varies From Region to Region: 

The Climate Varies From Region to Region Marmara, Aegean and the Mediterranean: Typical Mediterranean climate with hot summers and mild winters Black Sea Coast: Temperate climate with warm summers, mild winters and relatively high rainfall Central Anatolia: Hot, dry summers and cold winters Eastern Anatolia: Long snowy, cold winters and mild summers South-East Anatolia: Hot summers with mild, rainy winters

Slide13: 

Middle Anatolia and the Aegean region have got the most of the spas in Turkey. Marmara region follows these regions as the number of health spa centers (82% of Turkey).

Slide14: 

The description of the climatic conditions of Middle Anatolia and inland Aegean are continental, coastal Aegean and Marmara regions are maritime.

Slide16: 

The Most of the Health Spa’s are at 600 - 1300 m. Altitude (50% of Turkey) Few of them covered by forests, most of them are not . Dominating bioclimatic features are moderately stimulating factors

Health Spa Cure Centers in Middle Anatolia: 

Health Spa Cure Centers in Middle Anatolia Mild Stimulant Ankara-Beypazarı Niğde- Çiftehan Konya -Ilgın Kırşehir-Terme Strong Stimulant Sivas- Kangal Yozgat -Boğazlayan Eskişehir Ankara- Kızılcahamam Ankara- Haymana

Health Spa Cure Centers in Aegean Region: 

Health Spa Cure Centers in Aegean Region Coastal Region İzmir-Balçova İzmir- Çeşme Muğla-Köyceğiz Aydın -Kuşadası Inland Region Afyon- Oruçoğlu, İkbal, Sandıklı Kütahya- Harlek, Yoncalı Denizli-Pamukkale, Karahayıt

Health Spa Cure Centers in Marmara Region: 

Health Spa Cure Centers in Marmara Region Coastal Region Armutlu Çanakkale-Ezine Istanbul-Tuzla Inland Region Yalova -Termal Bursa- Askeri Hasth., Kükürtlü, Oylat Bolu Gönen Adapazarı-Kuzuluk

ANNUAL AVERAGE PRECIPITATION OF TURKEY: 

ANNUAL AVERAGE PRECIPITATION OF TURKEY

LONG TERM MEAN TEMPERATURE OF TURKEY : 

LONG TERM MEAN TEMPERATURE OF TURKEY

Stimulative Bioclimatological Effects Inland Regions at Moderate Altitude in Turkey: 

Stimulative Bioclimatological Effects Inland Regions at Moderate Altitude in Turkey Decreased atmospheric temperature Decreased atmospheric humidity Increased wind activity Decreased sultry days Increased night chilling Decreased antropogenic pollution Increased global / UV-radiation

Unfavorable Bioclimatologic Factors At the Middle High Mountain Region: 

Unfavorable Bioclimatologic Factors At the Middle High Mountain Region Especially at night cold stress can be expected in summer period There is a few sultry days in the summer period There hasn’t been any measures about air pollutant at Spa centers

Slide27: 

Altitude - The Number of the Cold Night (Under 15°C )

Number of foggy days per year: 

Number of foggy days per year Balçova 1 Ezine 4 Kızılcaham. 5 Yalova 7 Gönen 46 Bolu 32 Oylat 22 Ayaş 20

Annual Duration of Sunshine must be higher than 1500 hours (The climatic Limits for spa center by Deutscher Heilbäderverband ) All of Turkish Spa centers receive more than 1500 hrs/year: 

Annual Duration of Sunshine must be higher than 1500 hours (The climatic Limits for spa center by Deutscher Heilbäderverband ) All of Turkish Spa centers receive more than 1500 hrs/year Balçova 3000 Ezine 2800 Yalova 2400 Gönen 2600 Bolu 2200 Oylat 2400 Kızılcahamam 2400 Ayaş 2600

The Number of Sultry Days Per Year: 

The Number of Sultry Days Per Year Beypazarı 628 m. 10-15 days/year Ayaş 720 m. 1-2 days/year Eskişehir 801 m. none Kırşehir 985 m. 1-2 days/year Kızılcaha. 1002 m. none Ilgın 1030 m. none Haymana 1225 m. none Nevşehir 1260 m. none Sivas 1285 m. none Kangal 1545 m. none

Sultry Days at Continental Climate ( inland )of Turkey: 

Sultry Days at Continental Climate ( inland )of Turkey 0 – 500 m 500 – 1000 m 1000 – 1500 m > 1500 m 10-15 sultry days 5-10 sultry days a few sultry days none sultry days

Sultry Days in Summer Period are Mostly in South West Regions ( Teq>56.0ºC ): 

Sultry Days in Summer Period are Mostly in South West Regions ( Teq>56.0ºC ) Fethiye - Gebeler İzmir - Balçova İzmir - Çeşme Çanakkale - Ezine Yalova - Armutlu İstanbul - Tuzla

Slide34: 

İzmir - Çeşme 1 Tuzla - İstanbul 5-15 İzmir - Balçova 60 Gönen 37 Ezine 90 Bursa - Çekirge 220 Yalova Termal 105 Denizli - Sarayköy 169 Coastal / Marine climate Coastal / Marine climate Seashore urban climate Plate with low altitude Coastal / Marine climate Urban climate Valley / Forest climate Valley Turkish Spa Center at Low Altitude (m)

Turkish Spa Centers at Middle High Altitude (m): 

Turkish Spa Centers at Middle High Altitude (m) Bolu 750 Oylat - İnegöl 840 Kızılcahamam 975 Ankara-Ayaş 720 Niğde - Çiftehan 1200 Konya - Ilgın 1027 Forest climate Forest climate Forest climate Forest climate Plateau climate Plate at high altitude

Turkish Spa Center at High Altitude (m): 

Turkish Spa Center at High Altitude (m) Erzurum 1690 Sivas - Kangal 1600 Ağrı - Diyadin 1500 Yozgat 1350 Haymana 1300 Niğde - Çiftehan 1200 Kütahya - Harlek 1050 Mountain climate Mountain climate Mountain climate Mountain climate Plateau climate Plateau climate Plateau climate

Thank you for your attention !: 

Thank you for your attention !

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