Structure of cereal grains and legumes: Structure of cereal grains and legumes Structure of kernel of wheat,barley,rice,corn,oat,rye and soybean By :Er. Parimita: By : Er . Parimita ASSISTANT PROFESSOR SAM HIGGINBOTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCES,NAINI,ALLAHABAD,U.P. INDIA “grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in the gramineae family. This includes staples such as wheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, rice, and sorghum. All grains “grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in the gramineae family. This includes staples such as wheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, rice, and sorghum. All grains have the above anatomy: : “grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in the gramineae family. This includes staples such as wheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, rice, and sorghum. All grains “grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in the gramineae family. This includes staples such as wheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, rice, and sorghum. All grains have the above anatomy: “grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in the gramineae family. This includes staples such as wheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, rice, and sorghum. All grains have the above anatomy: Kernel of wheat: Kernel of wheat Genus – triticum There are 30,000 species Kernel of wheat is usually1/8-1/4 inch long (3-7 mm) Ovoid in shape,rounded in both ends structure of kernel of wheat: structure of kernel of wheat Spike with florets barley cross section: Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) major cereal grain . Important uses include use as animal fodder , as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages , and as a component of various health foods . Whole grain barley is a healthy high-fiber, high- protein.When cooked, barley has a chewy texture and nutty flavor. Its appearance resembles wheat berries, although it is slightly lighter in color.Average kernel length 7-10mm & width 2-4 Spike with florets barley cross section Kernel of Maize: Kernel of Maize Maize ( Zea mays ) Maize is the most widely grown grain crop in the Americas. The grains are about the size of peas , the starch found mainly in the endosperm,comprises 70-72 % of the kernel spike and kernel of oat oat (Avena sativa) While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmealand rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Cultivation not in india.: spike and kernel of oat oat ( Avena sativa ) While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats , one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Cultivation not in india . Spike And kernel Of Oat PowerPoint Presentation: Oat grains, as harvested, consist of highly digestible groat (seed) held within an indigestible hull(30%). Oats are generally considered health food . The discovery of cholesterol -lowering properties has led to wider appreciation of oats as human food. Oat kernel size is, however, inherently nonuniform because of the multifloret habit of the oat spikelet. Oat spikelets may contain one, two, three, or more kernels. The outermost of these, called the primary kernel, is the largest, and mass decreases with higher orders of kernels.average length:width ratio ranges from 3.63-4.29 Kernel of rice: Kernel of rice Rice ( Oryza sativa ) it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize (corn) seed is 5–12 mm (0.20–0.47 in) long and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.12 in) thick. rye grain: rye grain Rye ( Secale cereale ) Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe .A cereal grain originally from Asia that is mostly used to feed cattle. The rye grain resembles a grain of wheat, while being longer and not as plump. Its sides are also slightly compressed and it is Rye flour is suitable for making bread, but its gluten is less elastic than the gluten in wheat and holds less moisture; rye bread does not rise very much and is more dense and compact than wheat bread. It keeps for a longer time, as it dries out more slowly. PowerPoint Presentation: stucture of rye kernel Hydrated legume Seed & the Major Structures: Hydrated legume Seed & the Major Structures Legume- fruit of plant in the family Leguminosae . structure of soyabean: structure of soyabean soya bean ( Glycine max ) native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant is classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse by the FAO.soybean products such as textured vegetable protein (TVP),soy milk and tofu are ingredients in many meat and dairy analoguesThe main producers of soy are the United States (35%), Argentina (27%), Brazil (19%), China (6%) and India (4%) Soybean pod with purple flowers: Soybean pod with purple flowers The fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of three to five, each pod is 3–8 cm long (1–3 in) and usually contains two to four (rarely more) seeds 5–11 mm in diameter.Soybeans occur in various sizes, and in many hull or seed coat colors, including black, brown, blue, yellow, green and mottled. Composition of grains and legumes: Composition of grains and legumes Grain Protein % Fat % Crude fiber % Ash % Starch % Total sugars % Carbohydrate % Moisture% Wheat 15.3 1.9 2.9 1.8 53.0 2.6 72.0 14.0 Barley 8-13 2-3 5.6 2-2.5 65.0 2-3 77.0 14.0 Corn 10.0 4.3 2.9 1.5 70-72 3.22 71.0 14.0 Oat 17.3 5.1 12.1 3.4 52.8 1.45 66.0 14.0 Brown rice 7.3 2.2 0.8 1.4 80 1.0 64.3 13 Rye 8.7 1.5 2.2 1.8 75-76 0.5 72.3 14.0 Soybean 40.0 21 5.3 4.9 12-14 16.6 34.0 12.0 GLOSSARY: GLOSSARY Aleurone (Aleurone layer). The outermost cell layer of the endosperm, usually only one cell thick in wheat and the only endosperm tissue alive at maturity. The cells of this layer are responsible for the de-novo synthesis of enzymes needed at germination. Apex The tip of an organ. Awn A projection from the tip of the lemma Bran -outer layer-thin and papery. Brush A collection of hairs at the distal end of the wheat grain. Carpel The female part of the flower. Chaff is the dry, scaly protective casings of the seeds of cereal grain, Cross cells These cells are only found in grasses. They are formed from cells of the pericarp that elongate transversely, lose their chlorophyll and become lignified. They lie between the tube cells and the parenchyma of the pericarp.(fruit wall) Dicotyledon (with two seed leaf….which gives rise to first leaf) Embryo The basic plant present in the seed; composed of the embryonic axis (shoot end and root end) and the scutellum . Endosperm A nutritive tissue, characteristic of flowering plants, which nourishes the embryo In most plants it is a transient tissue absorbed by the embryo before maturity whereas in cereals and grasses it contains storage reserves in the mature grain and is not absorbed until after germination. Epidermis The outermost protective cell layer of tissue, usually covered by a cuticle.( An extra-cellular material secreted by plant cells that restricts water movement. It is composed of a fatty substance called cutin .) PowerPoint Presentation: funiculus The short stalk that joins the ovule to the carpel wall. Hilum The scar on a seed, such as a bean, indicating the point of attachment to the funiculus . Husk (or hull or chaff ) is the outer shell or coating of a seed. Hypodermis The cell layer beneath the epidermis of the pericarp. Lemma The outer of two bracts surrounding each floret in a grass spikelet Mesocarp The middle layer of the pericarp, between the endocarp and the exocarp . Nucellus The central portion of the ovule, containing the embryo sac(The female gametophyte of a seed plant, within which the embryo develops.), and surrounded by seed coat. Plumule- The bud of a young plant; the portion of the plant embryo giving rise to the first true leaves, especially above the cotyledons. Radicle The part of a plant embryo that develops into the primary root. Scutellum Mobilize the stored food in endosperm and transmit them to the embryo while germination Seed coat Deeply pigmented,gives grain its charecteristic colour. Tube cells Cells formed from the inner epidermis of the pericarp in which the cells elongate parallel to the grain's long axis.