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CEREBRAL CORTEX Cerebral cortex Sensory areas:- Motor areas:- Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe


CEREBRAL CORTEX The cerebral cortex is a sheet of neural tissue  six horizontal layers. The human cerebral cortex is 0.08–0.16 inches. plays a key role in memory, attention. perceptual awareness, thought, language, consciousness.


SENSORY AREAS:- The sensory areas are the areas that receive and process information from the senses. cortex that receive sensory inputs from the thalamus are called primary sensory areas


MOTOR AREAS The motor areas are located in both hemispheres of the cortex. Two areas of the cortex are commonly referred to as motor: Primary motor cortex which executes voluntary movements Supplementary motor areas and premotor cortex, which select voluntary movements

functional areas of the cerebral cortex: 

functional areas of the cerebral cortex Auditory Association Area : This the region where complex processing of auditory information takes place. Auditory Cortex : This region is involved in detection of sound quality like the loudness, tone, etc. Broca's Area : This the region of speech production. Motor Association Cortex : This functional area of cerebral cortex helps in coordination of complex movements. Visual Cortex : Simple visual stimuli is located in this area.

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Primary Motor Cortex : This area helps in initiation of voluntary movements of the body. Primary Somatosensory Cortex : This is where the tactile information from the body is received. Sensory Association Area : The process of multisensory information occurs in this area. Prefrontal Cortex : The region for problem Solving, emotion, complex thoughts, etc. is the prefrontal cortex. Visual Association Area : This region helps in complex processing of visual information


FRONTAL LOBE The frontal lobe is located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere, The frontal lobe contains most of the dopamine-sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex. The frontal lobe can be divided into a lateral polar, orbital (also called basal or ventral , and medial part


FUNCTION it is involved in higher mental functions. Functions involve the ability to recognize future consequences resulting from current actions, to choose between good and bad actions. override and suppress unacceptable social responses. determine similarities and differences between things or events. problem solving. planning and making decision motor functions, controlling impulse, memory and other high order functions in retaining longer term memories which are not task-based


DAMAGE Mental flexibility and spontaneity are impaired, but IQ is not reduced. Talking may increase or decrease dramatically. Perceptions regarding risk-taking are impaired. Socialization can diminish or increase.. Dorsolateral frontal lobe damage reduces sexual interest. Creativity is diminished or increased as well as problem solving skills. Distraction occurs more frequently. Loss of smell and/or taste


PARIETAL LOBE The parietal lobe positioned above the occipital lobe and behind the frontal lobe The parietal lobe integrates sensory information from different modalities parietal lobe four anatomical boundaries: the central sulcus separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe the lateral sulcus (sylvian fissure) is the most lateral boundary separating it from the temporal lobe the medial longitudinal fissure divides the two hemispheres.


FUNCTION The parietal lobe function reception of sensory information from the body and processing this information to carry out appropriate action. The parietal lobe plays important roles in integrating sensory information from various parts of the body, knowledge of numbers and their relations, and in the manipulation of objects the central sulcus separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe.


DAMAGES Amusia - inability to recognize and process music. Anosagnosia (denial of illness) Anosdiaphoria (indifference to illness) Asomatognosia (loss of knowledge or sense of one’s own body – usually right side problem) Astereognosia (can’t tell what things are by feeling them) Asymbolia for pain (absence of normal reaction to pain)

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Autotopagnosia (inability to localize or name body parts – usually on the left side) dysgraphaesthesia - inability to recognize letters or numbers written on the hand. phonagnosia - inability to recognize familiar voices Receptive aphasia – Patient can not understand the spoken or written word.  This condition is suggested when the patient is unable to follow commands or questions.  Speech is usually fluent but disorganized.  The Wernickie’s area is likely affected


OCCIPITAL LOBE the occipital lobes are part of the forebrain The occipital lobe is the visual processing center The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 (visual one). Human Visual one is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe


FUNCTION It controlling vision as well as recognizing color. visual cortex receives raw sensory information from the outside half of the retina on the same side of the head and from the inside half of the retina on the other side of the head Physiologists have used electrode recordings to divide the cortex into different functional regions. area is the primary visual cortex. It contains a low-level description of the local orientation. spatial-frequency and color properties within small receptive fields


DAMAGES Defects in vision ( Visual Field Cuts ). Difficulty with locating objects in environment. Difficulty with identifying colors ( Color Agnosia ). Production of hallucinations Visual illusions - inaccurately seeing objects. Word blindness - inability to recognize words. Difficulty in recognizing drawn objects. Inability to recognize the movement of an object ( Movement Agnosia ). Difficulties with reading and writing


TEMPORAL LOBE The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is located beneath the Sylvian fissureon both C.H. The temporal lobe home to the primary auditory cortex The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory.


FUNCTION The temporal lobe function includes helping one hear, understand and express emotions, memory and language processing Functions of the left temporal lobe are not limited to low-level perception but extend to comprehension, naming, verbal memory and other language functions. The underside (ventral) part of the temporal cortices appear to be involved in high-level visual processing of complex stimuli The medial temporal lobes be involved in episodic/declarative memory Deep inside the medial temporal lobes lie the hippocampi


DAMAGES Hearing loss Hearing loss Auditory agnosia Auditory verbal agnosia Auditory illusions Auditory hallucinations Loss of short or long term memory Fits of rage Violent or aggressive behavior Placidity Lack of interest Abnormally enhanced sexuality