RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN DISEASE PREVENTION OF SHEEP AND GOAT 97

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RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN DISEASE PREVENTION OF SHEEP AND GOAT

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RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN DISEASE PREVENTION OF SHEEP AND GOAT:

RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN DISEASE PREVENTION OF SHEEP AND GOAT By Dr..Parthasarathi Thota

PowerPoint Presentation:

Sheep and goats play a significant role as a means of livelihood. Most sheep and goats are raised under traditional husbandry practices characterized by frequent mixing of different herds resulting in the rapid spread of many contagious diseases. Efforts are underway to improve the productivity of sheep and goats to contribute to the national economic development and food security . Improving animal health by minimizing the impact of diseases will assist producers and traders to maximize productivity, decrease treatment costs , and improve enterprise profitability.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Disease affecting the reproductive and productive performances treatment, feed, housing and labor costs Loss of weight or reduced reproductive efficiency; Some diseases cause restriction of export trades of live animals or their products; and Recovered animals may have poor lifetime productivity.

Starts with Prevention:

Starts with Prevention Biosecurity Vaccination program Parasite control Good nutrition Early detection and treatment Culling Predator control Boer x Kiko

Biosecurity :

Biosecurity Biosecurity is a set of preventive measures designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, quarantined pests, invasive alien species, living modified organisms It includes any precautionary measures

Why is biosecurity important? :

Why is biosecurity important? cost effective against losses and unnecessary costs reduce disease incidence and dissemination.

Phases of Biosecurity :

Phases of Biosecurity Biosecurity has four sequential phases: mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

Biosecurity program principles:

Biosecurity program principles A successful herd biosecurity program utilizes three important factors: Increase the animal’s ability to resist disease; Minimize the number of contacts that result in disease; and Eliminate the sources of the infectious agent.

Increase the animal’s ability to resist disease:

Increase the animal’s ability to resist disease Resistance to disease may be non–specific & specific Vaccines increase an animal’s specific resistance to disease. Developing immunity to a disease is the protective response stimulated within an animal by vaccination. However, vaccinated animals may still get sick because of the following reasons:

Vaccination schedule for sheep:-:

Vaccination schedule for sheep:- Disease Age and booster doses Route Remarks Foot and mouth disease 6-8 weeks; s/c or i/m depending on the vaccine repeat every 6-9 months Hemorrhagic Septicaemia 3-4 months; 1 ml s/c May/ June Sheep pox 3 months s/c Tetanus Tetanus toxoid 0.5 - 1 ml s/c or i/m Anthrax 4-6 months; repeat annually 0.5 ml s/c at tail fold In endemic areas only Enterotoxaemia 3-4 months, repeat after 15 days and then annually. 2.5 ml s/c First two doses before august

Vaccination schedule for goats:

Vaccination schedule for goats Disease Age and booster doses Route Remarks Enterotoxaemia 3-4 months, repeat after 15 days and then annually. 2.5 ml s/c First two doses before august Hemorrhagic Septicaemia 3-4 months,, repeat annually 1ml s/c May/June Anthrax 4-6 months, repeat annually 0.5 ml s/c at tail fold In endemic areas only Tetanus 3-4 months, repeat at 6 months and then annually 0.5 - 1 ml s/c or i /m Foot and mouth disease 6-8 weeks, s/c or i /m depending on the vaccine

Minimize the number of contacts that result in disease:

Minimize the number of contacts that result in disease The number of effective contacts that may result in disease transmission can be reduced by physically separating animals. Methods of physical separation include quarantine of animals; segregation, often by age or class of animal; isolation of individuals; or reducing animal density by diluting the number of animals over a larger geographical area.

Eliminate sources of the infectious agent:

Eliminate sources of the infectious agent Reservoirs of infection carrier infection status

General Biosecurity measures:

General Biosecurity measures Buy from reputable breeders. Know the health status of the animals you are purchasing. Maintain a closed flock/herd. Limit showing/ exhibiting. Isolate new animals for at least 30 days.

Biosecurity Security from transmission of infectious diseases, parasites, and pests:

Biosecurity Security from transmission of infectious diseases, parasites, and pests Don’t loan or share rams or bucks.* Don’t breed ewes or does for other producers.* Do not mix your animals with other people’s animals.* Don’t share equipment unless it is disinfected after each use. Don’t let your shearer spread disease. Limit access to your farm/animals. Control cat, dog, bird, and rodent populations. *Unless other farm/animals have equal health status.

Deworming Parasite Control Program:

Deworming Parasite Control Program Good management Pasture rest/rotation Alternative forages Zero grazing Mixed species grazing Genetic selection between and within breeds Fecal egg counts Monitor pasture contamination Test for drug resistance Selective deworming

Good nutrition Better nutrition means stronger immune systems and disease resistance.:

Good nutrition Better nutrition means stronger immune systems and disease resistance. Feed balanced rations. Feed according to production cycle and growth stage. Supplement pasture and forage, when necessary and economical. Provide free choice minerals. Choose proper feeds for sheep and goats.

Early detection and treatment Early diagnosis is key to the control of health problems.:

Early detection and treatment Early diagnosis is key to the control of health problems. Know common signs of illness Loss of body condition Poor appetite Lag behind flock/herd Lethargy Ears or head down (tail down) Poor hair/wool coat Teeth grinding (pain) Dirty hocks, tail, britch (scours) Anemia (barber pole worm) Fever (infection) normal body temp is 102-103 °F Breathing (respiratory) Gait (neurological)

Culling Culling is one of the most powerful tools in managing animal health.:

Culling Culling is one of the most powerful tools in managing animal health. Most problems have a genetic component Foot rot Parasites Vaginal, rectal prolapses Inverted eye lids Most disease conditions will repeat or get worse Hoof problems Mastitis Vaginal prolapses Vaginal prolapse

Control predation Predation accounted for 37.3% of sheep and goat losses in 2005.:

Control predation Predation accounted for 37.3% of sheep and goat losses in 2005. Predator control options Fencing Management Livestock guardians Lethal control coyotes, dogs, bears, mountain lions, cougars, foxes, eagles, bobcats, wolves, vultures

Fencing Predator control starts with a good fence.:

Fencing Predator control starts with a good fence. High-tensile, electric Woven or net wire Electric netting Modify existing fences Predator-proof gates

Management Options :

Management Options Remove dead carcasses and anything else that attracts predators. Complete confinement. Lamb/kid in confinement. Night penning. Minimize use of high risk pastures. Don’t lamb or kid in remote areas or large pastures. Change lambing/kidding season. Fall lambing/kidding tends to reduce predator losses. Repellents, frightening devices. Aversive conditioning.

Livestock Guardians 45% of sheep farms employ livestock guardians.:

Livestock Guardians 45% of sheep farms employ livestock guardians. Guardian dogs (29.6%) Great Pyrenees, Komondor, Akbash, Anatolian Shepherd, Maremma, Mastiff Llamas (14.2%) (female or gelding, not alpacas) Donkeys (11.4%) (standard sized, gelding or jenny) Cattle – “flerd” need to be bonded

recent methods of disease prevention:

recent methods of disease prevention Diets for growing goats containing cassava foliage , and either brewer's grains or wheat bran,  supported better growth and feed conversion, and exhibited protective mechanisms (presumably due to the content of condensed tannins in the cassava) against nematode parasites , than similar basal diets supplemented with freshly cut grass.

GARLIC DEWORMING OF SHEEP :

GARLIC DEWORMING OF SHEEP Today, more and more sheepmen are discovering the all natural application of garlic juice. In the attached study only 1/5 of an ounce (one teaspoonful) of garlic juice (with water added to make one ounce dose) was used 6 times during the year to bring worms in sheep under control. (Sustainable Agriculture Research, Education .U.S. Department of Agriculture.)

Brucellosis:

Brucellosis Brucellosis remains a major zoonosis worldwide. Although many countries have eradicated Brucella abortus from cattle, in some areas Brucella melitensis has emerged as a cause of infection in this species as well as in sheep and goats. Despite vaccination campaigns with the Rev 1 strain, B. melitensis remains the principal cause of human brucellosis. The complement fixation test (CFT), the rose bengal test (RBT), and the serum agglutination test (SAT) are among the most useful tests for routine diagnosis. The microagglutination test (MAT) was developed as a simpler and more efficient test than the SAT.

Brucellosis:

Brucellosis Conjunctival vaccination with Rev-1 is the best method available for controlling Brucella melitensis infection. The rough RB51 and VRTM1 strains do not interfere with diagnosis, but are ineffective in sheep or goats. Recombinant vaccine strains deleted in genes for relevant proteins associated to diagnostic tests are, for the moment, ineffective. DNA-based vaccines are not available. Inactivated vaccines in new generation adjuvants are being also investigated.

Immunodiagnostic methods:

Immunodiagnostic methods Immunodiagnostic methods have had a large impact, with the emergence of highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for sarcoptic and psoroptic mange.

T. gondii:

T. gondii Development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for T. gondii may also provide a valuable diagnostic tool. Measures to control abortion include improved management of farm cats, fodder and water.

Neospora:

Neospora Neospora is parallels that of T.gondii infection in sheep and goats. While it does not appear to cause frequent losses in these animals, diagnosis is by specific serological tests such as the indirect immuno fluorescent antibody test and the enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay and the PCR .

Theileria lestoquardi (=T. hirci):

Theileria lestoquardi (= T. hirci ) Theileria lestoquardi (= T. hirci ) is a protozoan parasite of sheep and goats cannot be distinguished in the salivary glands of infected ticks by traditional staining methods such as Feulgen or Methyl green- pyronin . Thus development of a polymerase chain reaction using specific primers which amplify, only in T. lestoquardi -infected ticks

Coccidiosis eimera sp.:

Coccidiosis eimera sp. Prevention Good sanitation Avoid overcrowding Use of coccidiostats in feed, mineral, or water (before hand) http://www.sheepandgoat.com/articles/coccidtable.html

Enterotoxemia Overeating disease, pulpy kidney disease:

Enterotoxemia Overeating disease, pulpy kidney disease Usually occurs in lambs/kids that are consuming large amounts of concentrate, but may also occur on pasture and with heavy milking dams Type C - 0-30 days Type D - >30 days Predisposed by abrupt change in feed. Treatment (anti-toxin) is usually unrewarding. Prevention Vaccination of pregnant dams and offspring* Avoid sudden changes in diet don’t let creep feed run out Low level feeding of antibiotics Plenty of feeder space Caused by bacteria, clostridium perfringins type C & D Usually affects fastest growing lambs/kids. It is not uncommon to find them dead, with no prior symptoms. * Vaccine is not as effective in goats.

Abortion Termination of pregnancy or birth of weak or deformed lambs or kids that die shortly after birth.:

Abortion Termination of pregnancy or birth of weak or deformed lambs or kids that die shortly after birth. Bacterial Chlamydia Enzootic Abortion, EAE Vibriosis Vibrio campylobacter Leptospirosis Salmonella Viral Cache Valley Virus (mosquito vector) Protozoa Toxoplasmosis caused by protozoa that causes coccidiosis in cats The organisms that cause abortion in ewes/does can cause abortion in women.

Dealing with an abortion storm Over 5% of herd/flock – seek veterinary assistance:

Dealing with an abortion storm Over 5% of herd/flock – seek veterinary assistance Prevent spread of infectious agents. Strict sanitation. Disposal of infective material. Isolation of aborting females. Submit proper samples to a diagnostic lab. Blood sampling. Immediate vaccination. Use of antibiotics. The organisms that cause abortion in ewes/does can cause abortion in women.

Preventing abortion storms:

Preventing abortion storms Maintain a closed flock/herd. Vaccination Low level feeding of antibiotics. Prevent contamination of feed and water. Control cat population. Avoid stressful, overcrowded, and/or unsanitary conditions. Feed Rumensin ® or Deccox ® . The organisms that cause abortion in ewes/does can cause abortion in women.

Pregnancy toxemia ketosis, twin lamb disease, lambing paralysis, hypoglycemia:

Pregnancy toxemia ketosis, twin lamb disease, lambing paralysis, hypoglycemia Low blood sugar caused by an inadequate intake of energy during late gestation. Breakdown of fat produces toxic ketone bodies. Mostly commonly affects fat, thin, old, and/or females carrying multiple births. Symptoms : lethargy, sluggishness, lack of appetite, poor muscle control, inability to rise. Treatment is to increase blood sugar by giving glucose orally, sub-Q, or IV. C-section in extreme cases. Prevent by providing enough energy in diet and providing adequate feeder space.

Milk Fever hypocalcemia, parturient paresis:

Milk Fever hypocalcemia, parturient paresis Low blood calcium Caused by inadequate intake of calcium during late pregnancy or inability to mobilize calcium reserves prior to or after parturition. Similar symptoms as pregnancy toxemia. Can occur before or after parturition. Treat with commercial calcium solutions sub-Q or IV. Prevent by providing proper amount of calcium in diet. Don’t under or overfeed calcium. Save alfalfa hay for lactation. Feed mixed hay in late gestation.

Mastitis A major reason for culling ewes (46%):

Mastitis A major reason for culling ewes (46%) Inflammation of the udder Usually caused by bacteria Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Pasteurella sp. , and coliforms, such as E. coli. Acute, chronic, or sub-clinical. Both halves - could be OPP. Treat with antibiotics Systemic Intramammary Prevention Good sanitation Proper management at weaning. Dry cow treatment Later weaning Cull females with “lumpy” udders.

External parasites Ectoparasites:

External parasites Ectoparasites Keds (sheep tick) Ticks Lice Mites Blowflies/maggots Nasal bots

Keds, ticks, lice, (mange) mites:

Keds, ticks, lice, (mange) mites Treat with insecticides – dip, spray, or pour- on. Some anthelmintics are effective against biting parasites (e.g. ivermectin) Clean, dry environment

Caseous lymphadenitis (CL or CLA) cheesy gland, abscesses, boils:

Caseous lymphadenitis (CL or CLA) cheesy gland, abscesses, boils Controlling/eradicating CLA Separate or cull affected animals Practice good hygiene and management. Purchase from CLA-free flocks/herds. Vaccination can reduce severity of disease. Do not vaccinate naïve flocks/herds Caused by bacteria Corynbacterium pseudotuberculosis

Caprine Arthritic Encephalitis (CAE):

Caprine Arthritic Encephalitis (CAE) Retroviral infection of goats which may lead to chronic disease of joints and encephalitis (rare) in young kids. Similar to OPP in sheep. CAE virus is primarily transmitted to kids through colostrum. Contact transmission is rare, but possible. No treatment or vaccine is available.

Caprine Arthritic Encephalitis (CAE):

Caprine Arthritic Encephalitis (CAE) Control/eradicate CAE A positive blood test means the goat has antibodies for the virus. Cull seropositive goats from the herd. Separate kids from dams and feeding kids artificially. Buy from CAE-free herds.

Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP) :

Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP) A slowly progressive viral disease caused by an ovine lentivirus. Similar to CAE. Sheep are infected for life. Some breeds more susceptible Primary means of transmission is through the ingestion of infected colostrum and milk. Contact transmission possible. Symptoms Loss of body condition, “thin ewe syndrome” Increased breathing at rest Fever, cough, lethargy, nasal discharge Hard bag No treatment or vaccine

Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP):

Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP) Control/eradicate OPP Test and remove all seropositive sheep every six months until three consecutive negative tests are achieved. Presence of antibodies is not indicative of immunity Most infected sheep never show symptoms, but serve as carriers of the disease. Separate lambs from infected ewes and rear them artificially. Buy OPP-free breeding stock.

Johne’s Disease paratuberculosis:

Johne’s Disease paratuberculosis Cattle, sheep, and goat strains Environmental transmission Symptoms Emaciation, wasting disease Profuse, watery diarrhea seen in cattle is not common in sheep/goats Caused by bacteria Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Victoria, Australia Small intestine Ohio State University www.johnes.org

Johne’s Disease:

Johne’s Disease Difficult to diagnose. No treatment. Difficult to control. Prevention Maintain a closed flock/herd Be careful with cow colostrum Testing less reliable in sheep/goats Vaccination may lower the number of clinical cases Theoretical link to Crohn’s disease in people. Ohio State Univ. Small intestine

Scrapie :

Scrapie Fatal disease affecting the central nervous system of sheep and goats. Transmitted via infected placenta . Males not considered to be a risk. Can be spread by infected feed. Contact/environmental transmission ??? Clinical signs appear 2 to 5 years (or later) after the animal has been infected.

Scrapie Eradication .:

Scrapie Eradication . Increased slaughter surveillance. Mandatory identification of sheep and goats in commerce.* Voluntary scrapie flock certification program. Recommended for flocks/herds selling breeding stock. Third eyelid test Rectal biopsy Genotyping for scrapie susceptibility

Scrapie :

Scrapie In sheep, susceptibility is determined by genetics. Resistant genotypes have not been found it goats – yet. Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE).

Carcass disposal:

Carcass disposal Mortality happens on all farms. A biosecurity protocol should have a disposal plan. The following methods of carcass disposal can be applied: 1. Burial 2. Constructed Disposal Pit 3. Composting 4. Incineration 5. Daily Pickup 6. Freeze and Pickup 7. Landfilling

Thank you:

Thank you

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