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The EARTH: The EARTH Fact Sheet: Fact Sheet Average orbital speed = 109,033 km/h Diameter:Equatorial12,756.274 km / Polar12,713.504 km / Mean12,745.594 km Surface Area510,065,600 km² Land148,939,100 km² (29.2 %) Water361,126,400 km² (70.8 %) Surface temperature - min 85 K (-88 °C) - mean 287 K (14 °C) - max 331 K (58 °C) the equatorial diameter is 43 km larger than the pole to pole diameter. The largest local deviations in the rocky surface of the Earth are Mount Everest (8,850 m above local sea level) and the Mariana Trench (10,911 m below local sea level). Mariana Trench: Mariana Trench Slide5: Latitude ‘n’ Longitude Slide6: Latitude (shown as a horizontal line) is the angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds of a point north or south of the Equator. Lines of latitude are often referred to as parallels. Longitude (shown as a vertical line) is the angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds, of a point east or west of the Prime (Greenwich) Meridian. Lines of longitude are often referred to as meridians. Latitude ‘n’ Longitude Slide7: The distance on the earth's surface for each one degree of latitude or longitude is just over 69 miles, or 111 kms Note: As you move north or south of the equator, the distance between the lines of longitude gets shorter until they actually meet at the poles. At 45 degrees N or S of the equator, one degree of longitude is about 49 miles. Minutes and Seconds For precision purposes, degrees of longitude and latitude have been divided into minutes (') and seconds ('). There are 60 minutes in each degree. Each minute is divided into 60 seconds. Seconds can be further divided into tenths, hundredths, or even thousandths. Longitude is given as an angular measurement ranging from 0° at the Prime Meridian to +180° eastward and −180° westward. Latitude ranging from 0° at the Equator to 90° at the poles (90° N for the North Pole or 90° S for the South Pole Few Facts… North Pole: North Pole Arctic : Arctic The Arctic is the area around the Earth's North Pole. The Arctic includes parts of Russia, United States (Alaska), Canada, Greenland (a territory of Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland, as well as the Arctic Ocean Arctic is also known as the Land of the Midnight Sun South Pole: South Pole Antarctica: Antarctica Antarctica without its ice-shield Antarctica is the coldest place on Earth. Temperatures reach a minimum of between −85 °C and −90 °C in the winter and about 30 degrees higher in the summer months Circles of Latitude : Circles of Latitude The five major circles of latitude are (order corresponding to order on map at right from North Pole to South Pole): the Arctic Circle (66° 33′ 38″ N) the Tropic of Cancer (23° 26′ 22″ N) the Equator (0° N) the Tropic of Capricorn (Sagittarius) (23° 26′ 22″ S) the Antarctic Circle (66° 33′ 38″ S) Arctic Circle: Arctic Circle Arctic Circle: Everything north of this circle is known as the Arctic, and the zone just to the south of this circle is the Northern Temperate Zone Countries which have significant territory within the Arctic Circle are: Russia, Canada, Denmark (Greenland), United States (Alaska), Norway, Sweden, Finland Within the Arctic Circle, the arctic Sun is above the horizon for at least 24 continuous hours once per year, in conjunction with the Arctic's Summer Solstice - this is often referred to in local vernacular as midnight sun Vise-Versa in Winters Arctic Circle A sign along the Dalton Highway : A sign along the Dalton Highway Tropic of Cancer: Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Cancer: Lies currently 23° 26′ 22″ north of the Equator. the sun can appear directly overhead, which occurs on the June solstice. North of this line is the subtropics and Northern Temperate Zone. The Tropic of Capricorn is at the opposite latitude south of the Equator. South of the Tropic of Cancer and north of the Tropic of Capricorn are the Tropics. Tropic of Cancer Equator: Equator The Equator : The Equator The latitude of the equator is, by definition, 0°. equator is an imaginary circle drawn around a planet (or other astronomical object) at a distance halfway between the poles. The length of Earth's equator is about 40,075.0 km, The Sun, in its seasonal movement through the sky, passes directly over the equator twice each year on the March and September Places near the equator experience the quickest rates of sunrise and sunset in the world, Such places also have a relatively constant amount of day/night time on every day throughout the year compared with more northerly or southerly places. relation to launching of satellites The equator divides the planet into a Northern Hemisphere and a Southern Hemisphere, and has a latitude of 0°. Northern Hemisphere : Northern Hemisphere the word hemisphere means 'half ball' The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planet's surface (or celestial sphere) that is north of the equator Northern Hemisphere contains most of the land and about 88-90% of the human population In the temperate regions of the hemisphere, winter lasts from December to February Regions north of the Arctic Circle will experience some days in summer on which the sun never sets, and some days in winter on which the sun never rises. Southern Hemisphere : half of a planet's surface (or celestial sphere) that is south of the equator it contains five continents (Antarctica, Australia, most of South America, parts of Africa and Asia) as well as four oceans (South Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Southern) Summer is from December to February and winter from June to August. less polluted than the Northern Hemisphere the only large countries it contains are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and Uruguay. Climates in the Southern Hemisphere tend to be slightly milder than in the Northern Hemisphere. Because of less land and more ocean. The water heats up and cools down more slowly than land. viewing of the night sky from the Southern Hemisphere, with brighter and more numerous stars. Southern Hemisphere In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads : In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads Tropic of Capricorn: Tropic of Capricorn Tropic of Capricorn: Lies currently 23° 26′ 22″ South of the Equator. the sun can appear directly overhead, occurring on the December solstice. Latitudes south of the Tropic of Capricorn are in the Southern Temperate Zone. North of this line are the Tropics. Tropic of Capricorn A sign marking the Tropic of Capricorn as it passes through Namibia : A sign marking the Tropic of Capricorn as it passes through Namibia Antarctic Circle: Antarctic Circle Antarctic Circle: It is at latitude 66° 33′ 39″ south of the equator the value is currently slowly decreasing over time, pushing the Antarctic Circle southwards with about 15 m per year For everywhere within the Antarctic Circle, there is at least twenty-four hours of continuous daylight on the Summer Solstice in December, and at least twenty-four hours of continuous nighttime on the Winter Solstice in June. The area south of this circle is known as the Antarctic, and the zone to the north is the Southern Temperate Zone The continent of Antarctica forms a land mass covering much of the area within the Antarctic Circle. Antarctic Circle Greenwich Mean Time (GMT): Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) GMT is Greenwich Mean (or Meridian) Time is the mean (average) time that the earth takes to rotate from noon-to-noon. Greenwich Mean Time is international time, the basis of the world time clock GMT is World Time and the basis of every world time zone which sets the time of day and is at the centre of the time zone map. Prime Meridian: Prime Meridian Prime Meridian in Greenwich: Prime Meridian in Greenwich Time Zone: Time Zone International Date Line: International Date Line separates two consecutive calendar days the date in the Eastern hemisphere, to the left of the line, is always one day ahead of the date in the Western hemisphere it is most convenient to be 180° away from the defining meridian that goes through Greenwich, England this area is covered, mainly, by empty ocean Slide33: Indian Standard Time: Indian Standard Time Location of Mirzapur and the 82.5° E latitude that is used as the reference longitude for Indian Standard Time +5:30. Problems …. Daylight Saving Time: Daylight Saving Time Daylight Saving Time (or Summer Time as it is called in many countries) is a way of getting more out of the summer days by advancing the clocks by one hour during the summer. Then, the sun will appear to rise one hour later in the morning when people are usually asleep anyway, at the benefit of one hour longer evenings when awake: The sunset and sunrise are one hour later than during normal time. Thanks !!!: Thanks !!! You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.