Crude Drug Evaluation

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Brief Introduction to the Evaluation of crude drug

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By: charanpharma (3 month(s) ago)

nice one yaar

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EVALUATION PARAMETERS FOR CRUDE DRUG DEV BHOOMI INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY AND RESEARCH DEHRADUN, UTTARAKHAND Presentation by- DR. PANKAJ NAINWAL

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Question arises: Why there is need for evaluation of crude drug? To confirm the identity and determining the quality crude drug by seeking the presence of adulterants mixed with it used for Degradation of quality which can be achieved by- Defective Collection of species Intentional adulteration Deficient preparation of drug Inaccurate Storage of crude drug

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Methods of evaluation of crude drugs Basically five methods are used for evaluating crude drugs. The evaluation can be done in these methods quantitatively and qualitatively both. The methods are: Organoleptic evaluation Microscopical Evaluation Physical evaluation Chemical Evaluation Biological Evaluation

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Organoleptic Evaluation

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Organoleptic Evaluation Qualitative evaluation can be done by two ways Morphological Evaluation: Based on evaluating the SIZE, SHAPE of crude drugs SIZE: A millimeter scale is used for the measurement of length, breadth and height of the crude drug. SHAPE: a) Leaf: Simple, Compound b) Shape of lamina: Acicular, linear, lanceolate ovate etc c) Flower: Campanulate , Racemose , actinomorphic etc d) Fruit: Globular, oblong etc e) Seed: Oval, Reniform , Planoconvex etc f) Bark: Flat, Cured, Channelled , quill, double quill

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Shapes of Fruits

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Sensory Evaluation: Based on evaluating colour, odour, taste, texture, fractures etc Organoleptic Evaluation Texture and Fracture: Texture means touch, either smooth or rough, and fracture given to bark part, which reveal it is powdered, fibrous, tindles etc Colour: The crude drugs was kept in day light and was checked with the standard crude drug or processed drug. Odour: To achieve odour from the drug it can directly smell or pressed to ooze the Odorous material having distinct odour. The strenght of odour (None, Weak, Strong) and its sensation ( aromatic, fruity, muddy, rancid) was checked. Taste: To achieve taste one must sense it after bring it into mouth. Some e.g are: Bitter taste: Almond, Gentian, Picorrhizia Sweet Taste: Liquorice , Honey Mucilagenous : Linseed, Isabgol Acrid: Jalap, Kaladana Sour : Lemon

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MICROSCOPICAL EVALUATION

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1. BY CUTTING THIN SECTION OF VARIOUS PART OF DRUGS T.S of Leaf T.S of Root T.S of Seed

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2. Quantitative Microscopy Methods are: Stomatal number Stomal index Vein- islet number Vein- termination number Palisade ratio Lycopodium spore method

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Stomatal number: It is defined as average no. of stomata present in per square mm. of epidermis of leaf. S. No. Species Upper surface Lower surface Ratio Range Mean Range Mean Upper/ Lower 1 Datura stramonium 58-141 88 144-224 199 2.26 2 Datura tatula 91-173 124 155-331 208 1.68 3 Datura innoxa 82-172 141 105-223 165 1.77 Example of some plant species:

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Types of stomata: Stomata is dived into four types 1. Moss type 2. Graminae type 3. Gymnosperm type 4. Dicotyledonous type Out of this Dicotyledonous type is of various types based On arrangement of subsidiary cells. Electron microscopic photo of Stoma

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Diacytic stoma : A stoma with two subsidiary cells, in which cross walls are transverse (right angle) to the long axis of the stoma. Stomata Subsidiary cells

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Paracytic stomata : A stomatal complex in which one or more of the subsidiary cells that flank the stoma are parallel with the long axis of the guard cells. Stomata

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Anisocytic stomata : The subsidiary cells of the guard cell pair, in which the three surrounding subsidiary cells are of unequal size. 1 3 2

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Anomocytic stomata : Stoma surrounded by four or more subsidiary cell irregular in shape

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Stomatal index: This is expressed as: (Number of stomata per mm 2 × 100) (Number of stomata  + Number of epidermal cells per mm 2 ). This value has been found useful in comparing leaves of different sizes. This is constant for every leaves. S. No. Species Stomatal index Upper surface Lower surface 1 Cassia senna 11.4 – 13.3 10.8- 12.6 2 Atropa belladonna 2.3 – 3.9 20.2 – 23.0 3 Datura metel 18.1 – 18.7 24.5 – 25.3 4 Digitalis pupeura 1.6 – 4.0 17.9 – 19.5

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Palisade ratio: Palisade ratio is defined as the average number of palisade cell Beneath each epidermal cell of leaf. S. No. Species Palisade Ratio 1 Atropa belladona 6-11 2 Solanum nigrum 2-4 3 Digitalis purpurea 3.7-4.2

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Vein-islet number: It is number of vein-islet present in per square of mm of leaf surface Midway between midrib & margin. Vein-termination number: It is number of vein-termination present in per square of mm of leaf surface Midway between midrib & margin. S. No. Species Vein-islet number Vein-termination number 1 Senna 19.5 – 22.5 24.2 – 31.4 2 E.coca 9 – 12 16.8 – 21.0 3 Digitalis pupeura 2- 5.5 2.5 – 4.3

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It is a method for the study of powdered drugs having well defined particles like pollens, starch grains, single layered tissues or some other types of uniformly thick particles. It is used when chemical and other methods of evaluation of crude drugs fail as accurate measures of quality. On average 94000 spores per mg of powdered lycopodium are present. N×W×94,000× 100 = % purity of drug S×M×P N= no. of characteristic structure in 26 fields W= wt in mg of lycopodium taken S= no. of lycopodium spores in same 25 field M= wt in mg of sample calculated on material dried at 105 0 C P= 2,86,000 spores in case of ginger starch grains Lycopodium Spore Method

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PHYSICAL METHOD OF EVALUATION

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1 Solubility, Melting Point Optical Rotation and Refractive index Foreign Particle Extractive Values Ash Values Moisture Content Volatile content/ Distillation PHYSICAL EVALUATION Chromatography & Spectroscopy

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Chemical Evaluation

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Chemical Evaluation This evaluation reveals with screening of phytoconstituents present in crude drug. It include chemicl test for every constituent.

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CARBOHYDRATE Molish’s Test Benedict’s test Fehling’s test ALKALOID Mayer’s Test Wagner’s test Dragondroff’s test Hager’s test GLYCOSIDE Brontrager’s test Legal test Baljet test SAPONINS Foam Test Hemolysis Test FLAVONOIDS Shinoda Test PROTEINS & AMINO ACIDS Million’s Test Ninhydrin Test Biurete Test TANNINS Golbeater’s Skin Test - Matchstick test

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1 Test for Protiens & Amino acids Test for Saponins Test for Phytosterols Test for Alkaloids Test for Glycoside Chemical Evaluation Test for Carbohydrates Test for Tannins Test for Flavonoids

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Biological evaluation

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Biological evaluation Analgesic activity Anti-ulcer activity Diuretic activity Anticancer activity Antidiabetic activity

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COMMON TREATMENT METHODS: Animal used: Rats/ Mices/ Guinea Pigs Dose required: As per OECD guidelines Standard Dose: As per Literature available to show desired activity. Treatment: Control (No drug, Saline water, Distill water) Extracts (Plant Extract or Isolated components after column) Standard (Marketed preparation used for activity)

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THANK YOU HAVE A BEAUTIFUL LIFE