SIDDHA SYSTEM OF MEDICINE

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SIDDHA SYSTEM OF MEDICINE BY- PANKAJ NAINWAL ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR DEV BHOOMI INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY AND RESEARCH

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FATHER OF SIDDHA SYSTEM OF MEDICINE MAHARSHI AUGUSTYAYIR

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If the body perishes, Prana departs Nor will the light of truth be reached I learned the way of preserving my body And so doing my Prana too. - Thirumanthiram

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The Siddha medicine Tamil : சித்த மருத்துவம் , ( Citta maruttuvam ) One of the oldest medical systems known to mankind This system of medicine originated from south Indian Tamil traditional medicine , This system was very popular in ancient India . Believed to be more than 10,000 years old. The Siddha system of medicine is considered to be one of the most antiquated traditional medical systems.

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ORIGIN •Siddha system with its Thamizh origin also is associated with Thamizh language which is the last surviving classical language of India. •Siddha system has its origin about 10000 BC according to recent archeological studies. •Siddha system is nothing but a part of Thamizh civilization which is the only civilization alive from pre-historical periods.

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SIDDHARS •Siddhars are divine people as well as scientists who have attained Siddhi. Siddhi is nothing but enlightment. • Siddhars developed the Thamizh medical system and have written lot of literatures in medicine, alchemy, astrology, life style, dietetics etc. • Siddhars with the help of their astanga siddhic power and spiritual efficacy developed single and compound medicinal products from herbs, metals and minerals.

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The system is believed to be developed by the 18 siddhas of the south populars called the Siddhars. Siddhars were spiritual adepts who possessed the ashta siddhis , or the eight supernatural powers. Sage Agathiyar is considered the guru of all Sidhars. The Siddha system is believed to have been handed over to him by Lord Muruga , son of the Hindu God - Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvathi Siddhars the followers of Lord Shiva ( Shaivaites ). Agasthiyar is the first Siddhar. His 18 disciples contributed thousands of texts on Siddha, including medicine, and form the propounders of the system in this world

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Antiquity of Siddha system •Siddha system is built with special focus on food habits consisting with six tastes. The six tastes which are very much concerned with the Uyir thathu ie . Vaatham , Pitham and Kapham . • Dearrangement of Uyir thathu leads to diseases of body and mind. •Causes of diseases as per Siddha system are – Unavu (food) – Seyal (doings) – Kaalam (climate and environment) – Kanmam (by birth)

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•Charu (Juice) •Surasam (Concoction) •Chooranam (Powder) •Kudineer (Decoction) •Mathirai (Pill / Tablet) •Lehiyam (Stirring Choornam with syrup) •Thailam (Medicated oil) •Theeneer (Distilled liquid) •Karkam (Fresh ground herb) •Manappagu (Boiling the kudineer with palm jaggery) Usage of herbs in siddha system

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Various herbs are used for purification and calcination processes of various metals and minerals in siddha system. Eg. •Maruthonri (Lawsonia inermis) purifies Sulphur. •Thulasi (Ocimum sanctum) used for calcination of Lead. Herbs Used For Calcination In Siddha system

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•As already told Siddha system is more concerned about food and food habits •Different types of foods are described in Siddha system for different climates. •So Siddha system of medicine is being also practiced in every south Indian home by the ladies as Veetu vaithiyam or Paati vaithiyam . •Lot of simple preparations from plants are available and practiced in south India. •Some of the plants can be used in every home are described here. Home remedies in Siddha system “Food itself is medicine Medicine itself is food”

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Basics of Siddha system of medicine Generally the basic concepts of the Siddha medicine are almost similar to ayurveda. The only difference appears to be that the siddha medicine recognizes predominance of Vata, Pitta and Kapha in childhood, adulthood and old age, respectively., Whereas in ayurveda, it is totally reversed: kapham is dominant in childhood, Vata in old age and Pitham in adults.

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Concept of Siddha medicine Saram (plasma) - Responsible for growth, development and nourishment. Cheneer (blood) responsible for nourishing muscles, imparting colour and improving intellect Ooun (muscle) responsible for shape of the body Kollzuppu (fatty tissue) responsible for oil balance and lubricating joints. Elumbu (bone) responsible for body structure and posture and movement. Moolai (brain) responsible for strength; Sukila (semen) responsible for reproduction. Various psychological and physiological functions of the body are attributed to the combination of seven elements:

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Like in Ayurveda, in Siddha medicine also, the physiological components of the human beings are classified as Vata (air), Pitta (fire) and Kapha (earth and water).

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Concept of disease and cause It is assumed that when the normal equilibrium of the three humors ( Vata , Pitha and Kapha ) is disturbed, disease is caused. The factors, which assumed to affect this equilibrium are environment, climatic conditions, diet, physical activities, and stress. Under normal conditions, the ratio between these three humors ( Vata , Pitha and Kapha ) ie : ( Vadham , Pittham,Kabam in tamil ) is 4:2:1, respectively.

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According to the siddha medicine system, diet and lifestyle play a major role, not only in health but also in curing diseases. This concept of the siddha medicine is termed as pathya and apathya, which is essentially a list of "do's and don'ts". Continues……

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Diagnosis In diagnosis, examination of eight items is required which is commonly known as "enn vakaith thervu" . These are: 1. Na (tongue): Bl ack in vatha , yellow or red in pitha , white in kapha , ulcerated in anaemia . 2. Varna (colour): Dark in vatha , yellow or red in pitha , pale in kapha . 3. Svara (voice): Normal in vatha , high-pitched in pitha , low-pitched in kapha , slurred in alcoholism . 4. Kan (eyes): Muddy conjunctiva, yellowish or red in pitha , pale in kapha . 5. Sparisam (touch): Dry in vatha , warm in pitha , chill in kapha,sweating in different parts of the body. 6. Mala (stool): Black stools indicate vatha , yellow pitha , pale in kapha , dark red in ulcer and shiny in terminal illness. 7. Neer (urine): Early morning urine is examined; straw colour indicates indigestion, reddish-yellow colour in excessive heat, rose in blood pressure, saffron colour in jaundice, and looks like meat washed water in renal disease. 8. Nadi (pulse): The confirmatory method recorded on the radial art .

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Drug in Siddha system The drugs used by the Siddhars could be classified into three groups: Thavara (herbal product), Dhathu (inorganic substances) and Jangamam (animal products). The Dhathu drugs are further classified as: a) Uppu - (Water-soluble inorganic substances or drugs that give out vapour when put into fire), b) Pashanam - (Drugs not dissolved in water but emit vapour when fired), c) Uparasam - (Similar to pashanam but differ in action), d) Loham - (Not dissolved in water but melt when fired), e) Rasam - (Drugs which are soft) , and f) Ghandhagam - (Drugs which are insoluble in water, like sulphur).

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Drug in Siddha system continues The drugs used in siddha medicine were classified on the basis of five properties: Suvai (taste) Guna (character). Veerya (potency) Pirivu (class) and Mahimai (action).

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Drug in Siddha system continues According to their mode of application, the siddha medicines could be categorized into two classes: Internal medicine was used through the oral route and further classified into 32 categories based on their form, methods of preparation, shelf-life, etc. External medicine includes certain forms of drugs and also certain applications (such as nasal, eye and ear drops), and also certain procedures (such as leech application). It also classified into 32 categories.

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Treatment in Siddha system The treatment in siddha medicine is aimed at keeping the three humors in equilibrium and maintenance of seven elements. So proper diet, medicine and a disciplined regimen of life are advised for a healthy living and to restore equilibrium of humors in diseased condition. Saint Thiruvalluvar explains four requisites of successful treatment. These are the patient , the attendant, physician and medicine . When the physician is well-qualified and the other agents possess the necessary qualities, even severe diseases can be cured easily, according to these concepts.

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Treatment continues…. Treatment is classified into three categories: Devamaruthuvum (Divine method); Manuda maruthuvum (rational method); and Asura maruthuvum (surgical method). In Divine method, medicines like parpam , chendooram , guru, kuligai made of mercury, sulfur and pashanams are used. In the rational method, medicines made of herbs like churanam , kudineer , or vadagam are used. In surgical method, incision, excision, heat application, blood letting, or leech application are used.

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Siddha Today…. Siddha has lost its popularity after allopathic medicine was introduced, as a more-scientific medical system, even in Tamil Nadu. But, still there are a few ardent adopters or at least many people prefer Siddha for only a few diseases like jaundice. After some allopathic doctors, C.N. Deivanayagam, tried to popularize the Siddha system, even a few allopathic doctors have started suggesting Siddha. The Indian Government also gives its focus on Siddha, by starting up medical colleges and research centers like National Institute of Siddha and Central Council for Research in Siddha. There has been renewed interest in Siddha, as many started feeling allopathy is not even complete and changing its stands/theories frequently. Siddha medicine was found effective for chikungunya.

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Siddha Today…. World Siddha Day After former Chief Minister Karunanidhi's Announcement of Tamil New Year's Day as World Siddha Day, the First World Siddha Day was celebrated on 14 April 2009, addressed by his Excellency Shri Surjit Singh Barnala, Governor of Tamil Nadu. The 2 nd World Siddha Day was celebrated in a grand manner on 14 April 2010, at Image Auditorium, Adyar, Chennai ; more than 2000 students, post graduates, practitioners and traditional vaidyas participated in the celebration. In connection with the celebrations, a website was also launched. The 3rd World Siddha day was celebrated at Trivandrum , Kerala, where Siddha Doctors Met on the 14th and 15th of April 2011.

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The Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), established in 1978, by Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy ( AYUSH ), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare , Government of India , coordinates and promotes research in the fields of Ayurveda and Siddha medicine.Also, the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), a statutory body established in 1971 under AYUSH, monitors higher education in areas of Indian medicine, including Siddha. To fight biopiracy and unethical patents, the Government of India , in 2001, set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as a repository of 223,000 formulations of various systems of Indian medicine, such as Ayurveda , Unani and Siddha.

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Iti Shree ….