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Career and Succession Planning; Job Analysis and Role Description; Methods of Manpower Search; Attracting and Selecting Human Resources

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT MBA II Semester Lecture By: Prof. Pallavi Deshmukh Barkatullah University, Bhopal, M.P.

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Unit - II Career and Succession Planning; Job Analysis and Role Description; Methods of Manpower Search; Attracting and Selecting Human Resources

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Career Planning

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Career Planning What is a Career? A career develops over a lifetime and is made up of many work and life experiences. In the days when your parents and grandparents attended school, a high school education was considered to be enough for many people to find a life-long career. In those days, many people left school to go to work. Times have changed! Today, young people can expect to change career paths a number of times over a lifetime. What you learn in high school is an important foundation for a lifelong learning process that will guide you throughout your career journey.

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What is Career Planning? Career Planning is an ongoing process of learning what you are cut out for by: exploring your values, interests, skills, abilities, etc. exploring different occupations and industries, exploring different learning options, making an informed decision when setting a career goal, and developing  SMART  plans to achieve each career goal, Like- Step 1. What are you cut out for? Step 2. What is out there for you? Step 3. What career path will you take?

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Step 1: What are you cut out for? This is where you should start with your career development. You’ve got choices. Choices that you need to make about your life and career. To make these choices you need information and know how to use it. Some people know exactly what they want from life while others may have some idea and still others who have no idea.

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Ask yourself these questions: What are my interests? (Data, people, things) How do I like to work? (Preferences) What are my skills/strengths? (Abilities) What’s important to me? (Values)

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If you can answer these questions, that’s great. If you’re not sure or don’t know, perhaps you should explore this further. On the links below, there are a number of short “quizzes” that might help. Try them! They might give you some ideas. Just remember that these are only “computer quizzes”. They might give you some ideas but it’s always best to discuss the results with someone who knows about career development. Talk with your parents, Career Development Teacher, Guidance Counsellor, Career Resource Assistant or someone else who may be able to help. Career Cruising Fill Out Your Personal Profile Fill Out Your Personal History Form Abilities Quiz Data, People, Things Quiz Work Preference Quiz Work Values Quiz These forms provide a good starting point on your journey of self-discovery.

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT MBA II Semester:

What is Career Cruising? Career Cruising (traveling) is an industry-leading online career guidance and planning system. People of all ages use our tools to find the right career, explore education and training options, and build their own portfolio. Our add-on products extend Career Cruising’s functionality, making it easier for schools to manage their course selection process, communities to meet their workforce development needs, and students to prepare for the SAT/ACT.

Unit - II:

Step 2: What is out there for you? Now that you have a good sense of what you are cut out for, you're ready to explore what's out there. Whether you are considering continuing on with MBA studies, finding work or becoming an entrepreneur, you will need to learn more about the world of work.

Career Planning:

Step 3: What path will you take? Now that you’ve learned more about your likes, dislikes, skills, abilities, values and other personal things … and how they fit with different occupations … you may feel prepared to choose a career path.

Career Planning:

Succession Planning Unit – II ……….

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Definition: Succession planning is a process whereby an organization ensures that employees are recruited and developed to fill each key role within the company. Through your succession planning process, you recruit superior employees, develop their knowledge, skills, and abilities, and prepare them for advancement or promotion into ever more challenging roles.

Step 1: What are you cut out for?:

Succession planning accelerates the transition of qualified employees from individual contributors to managers and leaders. Succession planning: Prepares current employees to undertake key roles Develops talent and long-term growth Improves workforce capabilities and overall performance Improves employee commitment and therefore retention Meets the career development requirements of existing employees

Ask yourself these questions::

Succession planning accelerates the transition of qualified employees from individual contributors to managers and leaders. Succession planning: Improves support to employees throughout their employment Counters the increasing difficulty of recruiting employees externally Focuses on leadership continuity and improved knowledge sharing Provides more effective monitoring and tracking of employee proficiency levels and skill gaps

PowerPoint Presentation:

There are four stages to developing an effective succession plan: Identifying roles for succession; Developing a clear understanding of the capabilities required to undertake those roles; Identifying employees who could potentially fill and perform highly in such roles; and Preparing employees to be ready for advancement into each identified role.

What is Career Cruising?:

Without the implementation of a succession plan, there can be significant impacts on an organization including: Loss of expertise and business knowledge Loss of business continuity Damaged client relationships Time and effort to recruit and train replacement employees

Step 2: What is out there for you?:

Job Analysis and Role Description;

Step 3: What path will you take?:

What is Job Analysis? Job: A job may be defined as “a collection or aggregation of tasks, duties & responsibilities which as a whole are regarded as a regular assignment to individual employees.” Job Analysis: It is a procedure by which pertinent information is obtained about a job i.e. it is a detailed & systematic study of information relating to the operations & responsibility of a specific job.

Succession Planning:

Information collected for job analysis is: Work activities- such as cleaning, painting etc. This may be when & how the worker perform each activity. Human Behaviour- such as communicating, decision making, writing include plus what the job demand like, lifting weights, walking etc. Machine tools, equipment & other work aids include also products made materials, processed etc. Performance standards- such as quality , speed of each job Job content- includes physical working conditions work schedules, incentives for doing the job.

Definition::

Purpose and Uses of Job Analysis Organization and manpower planning Recruitment, selection Wage & salary administration Job re-engineering Employee training & management development Performance Appraisal Health & Safety

Succession planning accelerates the transition of qualified employees from individual contributors to managers and leaders. Succession planning: :

Contents of Job Analysis Job Identification Significant Characteristics of a job What the typical worker does Which materials & equipment worker uses How a job is performed Required personnel attributes Job relationship

Succession planning accelerates the transition of qualified employees from individual contributors to managers and leaders. Succession planning::

Steps in Job Analysis Collection of background information Selection of representative job to be analysed Collection of job analysis data A job description Developing job specification

There are four stages to developing an effective succession plan: :

Role / Job Description (JD) “Job description” is an important document which is basically descriptive in nature & contains a statement of job analysis.

Without the implementation of a succession plan, there can be significant impacts on an organization including::

Uses of job description JD can be used as a basis for productive group discussion JD aids in the development of job specifications JD can be used to orient new employees JD is a basic document used in developing performance standards. JD can be used for job evaluation, wage & salary administration technique.

Job Analysis and Role Description;:

Components or Content of JD Job identification / organisational position Job Summary Job duties & responsibilities Relation to other job Supervision Define each major type of machine, tools & equipment Working conditions

What is Job Analysis?:

Job Specification A job specification describes the knowledge, skills, education, experience, and abilities you believe are essential to performing a particular job. The job specification is developed from the  job analysis . Ideally, also developed from a detailed  job description , the job specification describes the person you want to hire for a particular job. 

Information collected for job analysis is::

A job specification cuts to the quick with your requirements whereas the job description defines the duties and requirements of an employee’s job in detail. The job specification provides detailed characteristics, knowledge, education, skills, and experience needed to perform the job, with an overview of the specific job requirements.

Purpose and Uses of Job Analysis:

Basic contents of a job specification are as follows: Personal characteristics such as education, job experience, age, gender, and extra co-curricular activities. Physical characteristics such as height, weight, chest, vision, hearing, health, voice poise, and hand and foot coordination, (for specific positions only). Mental characteristics such as general intelligence, memory, judgment, foresight, ability to concentrate, etc. Social and psychological characteristics such as emotional ability, flexibility, manners, drive, conversational ability, interpersonal ability, attitude, values, creativity etc. Various contents of a job specification can be prescribed in three terms: essential qualities which a person must possess; desirable qualities which a person may possess; and contra-indicators which are likely to become a handicap to successful job performance

Contents of Job Analysis:

Example Overview The example below is for a sales person who is selling financial service products. About 75% of his/her time is spent in the office and the other 25% is out on the road making presentations to customers. The job requires a Certified Financial Planners designation and requires heavy duty lead generation. Job Title:           Financial Planning Sales Classification:   Full Time /Exempt Employee  Department/Division:   Financial Product/ Western Regional Location:   Orange County California Pay Grade:   Level IV (Base + Commission)

Steps in Job Analysis:

Job Requirements A. Summary of Position Researches and identifies target client sectors for financial product services. Develops and implements a sales process to include initial contact, follow up, presentation and closing procedures. Maintains records of contacts and sales status including contact reports, sales projections and quota ratios.

Role / Job Description (JD):

B. Job Duties 1) Research and Create targeted new client lists within M.P. territory 2) Makes initial contact with potential clients 3) Performs routine and regular follow up with potential clients 4) Performs routine and regular follow up with former clients 5) Visits potential clients and makes sales presentations 6) Closes sales 7) Maintains regular record reporting sales activity

Uses of job description:

C. Computer Skills and Software Used 1) Windows operating system 2) MS Office including Word, Excel and PowerPoint 3) Constant Contact or other Customer Relations Management Software D. Reporting Structure 1) Reports to regional sales manager 2) Has nobody directly reporting to this position 3) Required to participate in Annual Sales Meeting

Components or Content of JD:

Employee Requirements A. Education and Training 1) Bachelor Degree in business, finance or accounting or 5 Years experience and High School Diploma. Bachelors Degree Preferred 2) ABC Financial Planning - Level 3 or higher (Fictional) B. Skills and Aptitudes 1) Fearless cold caller, 250+ Outbound calls per week 2) Ability to close a sale 3. Adapt to changing financial conditions and meet customer expectations

Job Specification:

C. Environment and Physical 1) Work in high volume sales office 2) Be able to sit for prolonged periods of time 3) Be able to travel to client locations 25% of time D. Licenses/Certifications 1) CFP - Certified Financial Planner 2) Driving License

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Success Factor Grow Sales 1) Increase market channel penetration by 30% in first Year 2) Develop 3 secondary channels in first 180 days 3) Grow referral-based sales from 15% to 20% in first year B. Develop Sales Department 1) Recruit and train 2 junior sales associates with gross sales of Rs. 500K by 3 rd quarter 2) Increase number of sales presentations by 20% within 12 months 3) Implement Web-Meeting presentation System to Reduce travel costs by 20% per year Comments____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ HR Representative___________________________________ Department Manager__________________________________ Date Completed__________________________________

Basic contents of a job specification are as follows::

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Example Overview The example below is for a sales person who is selling financial service products. About 75% of his/her time is spent in the office and the other 25% is out on the road making presentations to customers. The job requires a Certified Financial Planners designation and requires heavy duty lead generation.:

Unit II….. Methods of Manpower Search

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Methods of Manpower Search Recruitment Selection Placement

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Recruitment- Meaning Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm. For some components of the recruitment process, mid- and large-size organizations often retain professional recruiters or outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies.

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Meaning of Recruitment………. The recruitment industry has five main types of agencies: employment agencies , recruitment websites and job search engines , "headhunters" for executive and professional recruitment , niche agencies which specialize in a particular area of staffing and in-house recruitment. The stages in recruitment include sourcing candidates by advertising or other methods, and screening and selecting potential candidates using tests or interviews.

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Employment agencies An  employment agency  is an organization which matches employers to employees. In all developed countries there is a publicly funded employment agency and multiple private businesses which also act as employment agencies.

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"Headhunters" For Executive and Professional Recruitment A "headhunter" is industry term for a third-party recruiter who seeks out candidates, often when normal recruitment efforts have failed. Headhunters are generally considered more aggressive than in-house recruiters or may have preexisting industry experience and contacts. 

PowerPoint Presentation:

"Headhunters" For Executive And Professional Recruitment They may use advanced sales techniques, such as initially posing as clients to gather employee contacts, as well as visiting candidate offices. They may also purchase expensive lists of names and job titles, but more often will generate their own lists. They may prepare a candidate for the interview, help negotiate the salary, and conduct closure to the search.

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Niche recruiters (Professional Recruiters) More and more employers are seeing the emergence of specialized firms which only staff for a very narrow specialty. Because of their focus, these firms can very often produce superior results due to their ability to channel all of their resources into networking for a very specific skill set. This specialization in staffing allows them to offer more jobs for their specific demographic which in turn attracts more specialized candidates from that specific demographic over time building large proprietary databases. These Niche firms tend to be more focused on building ongoing relationships with their candidates as is very common the same candidates are placed many times throughout their careers.

Unit II…..:

In-house recruitment Larger employers tend to undertake their own in-house recruitment, using their human resources department, front-line hiring managers and recruitment personnel who handle targeted functions and populations. In addition to coordinating with the agencies mentioned above, in-house recruiters may advertise job vacancies on their own websites, coordinate internal employee referrals, work with external associations, trade groups and/or focus on campus graduate recruitment. While job postings are common, networking is by far the most significant approach when reaching out to fill positions. Alternatively a large employer may choose to outsource all or some of their recruitment process (recruitment process outsourcing).

Methods of Manpower Search:

Passive candidate research firms and sourcing firms These firms are the new hybrid firms in the recruitment world able to combine the research aspects (discovering passive candidates) of recruiting and combine them with the ability to make hires for their clients. These firms provide competitive passive candidate intelligence to support companies' recruiting efforts. Normally they will generate varying degrees of candidate information from those people currently engaged in the position a company is looking to fill. These firms usually charge a per hour fee or by candidate lead. Many times this uncovers names that cannot be found with other methods and will allow internal recruiters the ability to focus their efforts solely on recruiting.

Recruitment- Meaning:

Sources of Recruitment

Meaning of Recruitment……….:

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Employment agencies:

Unit – II ………….. Attracting & Selecting Human Resources

"Headhunters" For Executive and Professional Recruitment:

Definition Selection is the process of picking individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organization . The basic purpose is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. Selection is a long process commencing from the preliminary interview of the applicants & ending with the contract of employment

"Headhunters" For Executive And Professional Recruitment:

Steps in selection procedure Reception of Application Preliminary Interview Application Blank Psychological Tests Interview Background Investigation Final Selection by Interviews Physical Examination Placement Negative Decision Waiting List of desirable applicants Unfavorable Result

Niche recruiters (Professional Recruiters):

Types Of Interviews The non- directive interview: In this kind of interview the recruiter asks questions as they come to mind. There is no specific format to be followed. The question can take any direction. The limitation with this kind of interview is to keep questions related to job & obtain related data. The directive or structured interview: In this kind of interview, the recruiter uses a predetermined set of questions that are clearly job related. Since every applicant is asked the same basic questions, comparison among applicants can be made easily. The limitations with this kind of interview is that it restricts the freedom of interviewer & may convey disinterest to applicants who are used to more flexible interviews. The behavioural interview: It focuses on actual work incidents in the applicants past. The applicant is supposed to reveal what he or she did in a given situation.

In-house recruitment:

Types Of Interviews The situational interview: In this kind of interview the applicant is confronted (deals with) a hypothetical incident and asked how he or she respond to it. The applicant’s response is then evaluated relative to pre- established benchmark (levels) standards. Stress interview: In stress interview interviewer attempts to find how applicants would respond to aggressive, embarrassing, rude & insulting questions. The limitation with kind of interview is that this may backfire also, the applicant may turn down the job offer. Panel Interview: In typical panel interview, the applicant meets with three to five interviewers who take turns asking questions. After the interview, the interviewers pool their observations to arrive at a consensus about the suitability of the applicant.

Passive candidate research firms and sourcing firms:

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Sources of Recruitment:

Review Questions Describe briefly the various steps that are involved in hiring human resources in an organisation? What are the various sources of recruitment? How can an organisation evaluate the worth of these sources? What is application blank? What is its role and importance in selecting management trainees in a large public organisation? Distinguish between: Work sample & Assessment centre Recruitment & Selection What are the major problems of an interview as a selection device? What can management do to reduce some of these problems? You are starting a new manufacturing company. What phases would you go through to select your employees?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Induction, Socialization; Training & Development Unit - III Lecture By: Prof. Pallavi Deshmukh

Unit – II …………..:

Placement After a candidate has been selected, he should be placed on a suitable job. Placement is the actual posting of an employee to a specific job. It involves assigning a specific rank & responsibility to an employee. The placement decisions are taken by the line manager after matching the recruitments of a job with the qualifications of a candidate.

Steps in selection procedure:

Induction/ Orientation Induction/ Orientation is a task of introducing the new employees to the organisation & its policies, procedures & rules. According to Billimoria, “ Induction or orientation is the process through which a new employee is rehabilitated into the changed surroundings & introduced to the practices, policies & purposes of the organisation.”

Types Of Interviews:

Objectives It promotes a feeling of belongingness & loyalty to the organisation among newcomers. Builds up confidence in employees Introduce new colleagues, boss & subordinates

Types Of Interviews:

Elements of Induction Introductory information: Information regarding company history, product, structure, policies, rules & regulations, pay etc. On the Job information: Information regarding where he is going to be placed, departmental facilities, requirements, safety measures etc. Follow up Interview: A follow up interview should be arranged several weeks after the joining to answer the problems faced by the employee on the job.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Procedure Of Induction Time & place to report to work Welcome of employee at org. by immediate boss Administrative work should be completed Departmental orientation should include job introduction, whom to look for help when in problem Intro must be supplemented by employee handbook, employee manual, short guide tour around the plant

Review Questions:

Problems of Induction New employee is overloaded with: Too much of information in short time Forms to complete Employee is given menial (tedious) tasks that discourages employee Employee may develop wrong perceptions because of short time spent on each job.

Induction, Socialization; Training & Development :

Socialization HRM

Placement:

Socialization Meaning of Socialization: S ocialization in an organisational context is basically a process of adaptation to a new culture of the organisation.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Types of Socialization Programme Formal / Informal: New employees may be put directly into their jobs, with no effort made to differentiate them from those who have been doing the job for a considerable length of time. Individual v/s Collective: The socializing programme can be individual specific or for a group of new entrants.

Induction/ Orientation:

Training & Development HRM

Objectives:

Training & Development Training = Altering behavior Development = Increasing knowledge Learning = Permanent change in behavior Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour. It tries to improve their performance on the current job or prepare them for an indented job.

Elements of Induction:

Need For Basic Purposes Of Training To Increase Productivity : Because of training , instruction can help employees increase their level of performance on their present assignment. To Improve quality : Better informed employees are less likely to make operational mistakes. To Help a Co. fulfill its future personnel needs : It leads to less changes & adjustments in the event of sudden personnel alternation.

Procedure Of Induction:

To Improve Organisational Climate : To improve health & safety : Proper training can help prevent industrial accidents. Obsolescence (becoming outdated) Prevention : It foster (promote growth) the & initiative creativity of employees & help to prevent manpower obsolescence. Personnel Growth : Employee on personal basis gain individually from their exposure to educational experiences. Need For Basic Purposes Of Training

Problems of Induction:

Steps in Training Programmes

Socialization:

Steps in Training needs Identifying Training needs: It must be on the basis of organisational analysis, operational analysis & individual analysis. Getting ready for the job: Under this step, it is to be decided who is to be trained – new comer or old employee, supervisor or manager. Preparation of the learner: It includes putting the learner at ease, stating the importance & ingredients of job, explain the process of training, familiarizing him with the equipment, materials, tools, & trade terms. Presentation of operation & knowledge: The trainer should clearly tell show, demonstrate & question in order to put over the new knowledge & operations. Performance try out: Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly, explaining him each step. Mistakes are corrected. Follow – Up: This step is undertaken with view to testing the effectiveness of training efforts.

Socialization:

Training Methods & Techniques On the job training: Duration may be 1 week or 45 days to 1 year. Vestibule/ Training centre training/ Simulation: It duplicates the job situation in a company classroom. Where equipment & machine training is being imparted. Demonstration & Examples: the trainer describes & displays something when he teaches an employee how to do something by actually performing the activity. Apprenticeship: In technical areas apprenticeship training is the oldest & commonly used method, here each apprentice is given a programme of assignments according to a pre determined schedule. Duration is 2 – 3 yrs Class Room Methods: Lectures Conference Case Study Role Playing Programmed Instruction Audio Visual

Types of Socialization Programme:

Development HRM

Training & Development:

Nature of Development Training of employees: Employees are trained after being posted. Transfer of employees- This is done according to employees ability, competency & experience, & according to the needs of org. Evaluation of employees qualities: Employees performance is being evaluated & verified his suitability for the job. Promotion of employees- This is done on the basis of merit & seniority of employee.

Training & Development:

Objective of employee development Securing continued supply of competent working force: Optimum utilization of human resources: Developing technical & administrative skill: Prevention of managerial obsolescence:

Need For Basic Purposes Of Training:

Range of management development A) Individual On the job technique: (Guided & controlled experience under line managers) Coaching & counseling; Job rotation, assistant to positions; Under study: Task force assignment; Junior Board or Committee members B) Individual Off the job: (mid- stream education, different methods) Night school/ college on leave to attend short term Programmes. C) Student on his own: (Self- teaching but structured/ controlled by the instructor) Planned reading Correspondence courses Programmed instruction (PI) Computer aided instruction (CAI) News letter, manuals, handouts, TV lessons; D) Student centered Instructions: (Permissive & democratic) Discussion- guided or directed Case discussion Problem solving conferences, syndicates, brain storming, buzz sessions Role playing, Stimulated group activities: Business games, In basket games, exercises, workshops E) Leader – centered instruction: (Structured & controlled by the instructor, a more or less authoritarian directive) Traditional lectures, LCD & OHP lecturer, chart lecture, dinner meeting lecture

PowerPoint Presentation:

Distinction between T & D Learning Dimensions Training Development Who? Non- Managerial personnel Managerial personnel What? Technical & mechanical operation Theoretical, conceptual ideas Why? Specific job- related purpose General Knowledge When? Short term Long term

Steps in Training Programmes:

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