Illinois NAACP Centennial

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African Americans and Civil Rights Past ~ Present ~ Future

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Timeline: Through the Centuries 2 nd Century – 1789: Old World to New – 1863: The Enslavement of Africans 1864 – 1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1917 – 35: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance 1936 – 59: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1960 – 69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1970 – 90: Trailblazers 1991 – Present: The Spirit of the Millennium

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2 nd Century-1789 Old World to New

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2 nd Century-1789: Old World to New 2 nd – 3 rd Century AD - 1464 The first great medieval western African trading empires is established as Wadagu, or Ghana. Aksum becomes the greatest market of northeastern Africa. The Great Zimbabwe begins some 400 years as the heart of a great trading empire. Sundita, a West African monarch, establishes the western Sudanese empire of Mali.

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2 nd Century-1789: Old World to New 2 nd – 3 rd Century AD - 1464 The First African slaves are transported to Portugal. Mansa Musa takes the throne of the great Mali empire. A loose alliance consisting of seven African states is formed. Known as the Hausa states, they flourish until the 19 th century. Sonni Ali ascends the throne of the Songhai kingdom.

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2 nd Century-1789: Old World to New Three hundred slaves are obtained by the British and taken to Hispaniola (later Haiti) and the Dominican Republic. 1517-1619 The Spanish take slaves to St. Augustine, the first permanent settlement in what would later be the state of Florida. Black plantation slavery begins in the New World when Spaniards begin importing slaves from Africa. A Dutch ship with 20 African slaves aboard arrives at the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia.

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1650-1735 2 nd Century-1789: Old World to New The Yoruba Oyo empire begins a century of ascendancy in what would later be southwestern Nigeria. The Asante begin to supply slaves to British and Dutch traders on the southwestern coast of Africa in return for firearms. A South African census list 1,779 Dutch settlers owning 1,107 slaves. Carolus Linnaeus begins his classification of all then-known animal forms, ultimately including humans with primates and providing a model for modern racial classification.

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1739-70 2 nd Century-1789: Old World to New The Stono Rebellion, one of the earliest slave insurrections, leads to the deaths of at least 20 whites and more than 40 blacks west of Charleston in the black-majority colony of South Carolina. Lucy Terry composes the poem Bar Fights, the earliest extant poem by an African American. Jupiter Hammon writes an autobiography often considered to be the first slave narrative. Crispus Attucks , an escaped slave, is killed by British soldiers in the Boston Massacre.

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1772-77 2 nd Century-1789: Old World to New Jean-Baptist-Point Du Sable builds a fur trading post on the Chicago River at Lake Michigan, its success leads to the settlement that later becomes the city of Chicago. Phyllis Wheatley , the first notable black woman poet in the United States. Vermont, not yet part of the United States, becomes the first colony to constitutionally abolish slavery.

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1779-89 Olaudah Equiano publishes his two volume autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, pioneering the slave narrative. 2 nd Century-1789: Old World to New The first of a series of intermittent wars known as the Cape Frontier Wars is fought between the cape colonist of South Africa and the Xhosa people. Maison Des Esclaves (“Slave House”) on Goree Island Senegal.

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1790-1863 The Enslavement of Africans

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1790-1863: The Enslavement of Africans Plans of a ship for transporting slaves, engraving, 1790. 1790-91 Benjamin Banneker , mathematician and compiler of almanacs, is appointed by President George Washington to the District of Columbia commission where he works on the survey of Washington, D.C. A slave revolt begins in Haiti and is joined by freedman Toussaint-Louverture.

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1790-1863: The Enslavement of Africans 1793-1800 Congress passes the first Fugitive Slave Act, making it a crime to harbor an escaped slave or to interfere with his or her arrest. Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, which is credited with fixing cotton cultivation, virtually to the exclusion of other crops, in the American South and so helping to institutionalize slavery. Gabriel Prosser plans the first major slave rebellion in U.S. history, massing more than 1,000 armed slaves near Richmond, Virginia.

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1790-1863: The Enslavement of Africans 1816-21 The American Colonization Society is established to transport freeborn Blacks and emancipated slaves to Africa, leading to foundation of a colony that becomes the Republic of Liberian in 1847. The African Methodist Episcopal Church is formally organized and consecrates Richard Allen as its first Bishop. The Missouri Compromise provides for Missouri to be admitted to the Union as a slave state, Maine as a free state and western territories north of Missouri’s southern border to be free soil. The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, developed from a congregation of Blacks who left the John Street Methodist church in New York City because of discrimination, is formally organized.

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1790-1863: The Enslavement of Africans Abolitionist David Walker publishes a pamphlet entitled Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, calling for a slave revolt. Freedman Denmark Vesey plans the most extensive slave revolt in U.S. history. The Charleston rebellion is betrayed before the plan can be effected, leading to the hanging of Vesey and 34 others. 1822-29 William Lloyd Garrison, a white man, begins publishing the antislavery newspaper. The Liberator, which advocates emancipation for African Americans held in bondage.

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Nat Turner leads the only effective, sustained rebellion in U.S. history, attracting up to 75 fellow slaves and killing 60 Whites. Some six weeks after the defeat of the insurrection, Turner is hanged. 1831-34 1790-1863: The Enslavement of Africans The American Anti-Slavery Society, the main arm of the abolitionist movement, is founded under the leadership of William Lloyd Garrison. Slavery is abolished in the British Empire.

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1790-1863: The Enslavement of Africans Slave revolt on the Spanish slave Ship Amistad in the Caribbean. The Liberty Party holds its first national convention in Albany, New York. In opposition to fellow abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, members believe in political action to further antislavery goals. 1839-42 New Orleans was the site of the United States most active slave market.

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1790-1863: The Enslavement of Africans Joseph Jenkins Roberts , the son of free Blacks in Virginia, is elected the first president of Liberia. Frederick Douglass begins publication of the North Star, an antislavery newspaper. 1843-48 In a speech at the national convention of free people of color, Henry Highland Garnet, abolitionist and clergyman, calls upon slaves to murder their masters.

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1850-53 1790-1863: The Enslavement of Africans Speaking on behalf of the abolitionist movement, Sojourner Truth travels throughout the American Midwest, developing a reputation for personal magnetism and drawing large crowds. Harriet Tubman (far left) standing with a group of slaves whose escape she assisted. William Wells Brown, a former slave, abolitionist, historian and physician, publishes Clotel, the first novel by an African American.

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Author Frances E.W. Harper’s most popular verse collection, Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects , is published, containing the antislavery poem Bury Me in a Free Land. 1790-1863: The Enslavement of Africans 1854-56 John Mercer Langston , a former slave, is elected clerk of Brownhelm Township in Ohio. He is the first black to win an elective political office in the United States. Members of the Methodist Episcopal Church found Wilberforce University. In the ongoing contest between pro and antislavery forces in Kansas, a mob sacks the town of Lawrence, a “hotbed of abolitionism,” which leads to retaliation by white abolitionist John Brown at Pottawatomie Creek.

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1790-1863: The Enslavement of Africans Harriet E. Wilson writes Our Nig , a largely autobiographical novel about racism in the North before the Civil War. In the Dred Scott Decision, the U.S. Supreme Court legalizes slavery in all the territories, exacerbating the sectional controversy and pushing the nation toward civil war. 1857-59 The U.S. Supreme Court, in Ableman v. Booth, overrules an act by a Wisconsin state court that declared the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 unconstitutional. Martin R. Delany , physician and advocate of black nationalism, leads a party to West Africa to investigate the Niger Delta as a site for settlement of African Americans.

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1790-1863: The Enslavement of Africans After the election of Abraham Lincoln, South Carolina secedes from the Union in December. It is followed in January 1861 by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana, and in February by Texas. As battle lines are drawn, Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee also choose to secede. 1860-61 The American Civil War begins in Charleston, South Carolina, as the confederates open fire on Fort Sumter. Harriet Jacobs’ Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl , is the first autobiography by a formerly enslaved African American woman. Pinckney Pinchback runs the Confederate blockade on the Mississippi to reach New Orleans. There he recruits a company of black volunteers for the Union, the Corps d’ Afrique.

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1790-1863: The Enslavement of Africans Future U.S. congressman Robert Smalls and 12 other slaves seize control of a confederate armed frigate in Charleston harbor. They turn it over to a Union navel squadron blockading the city. 1861-63 The second Confiscation Act is passed, stating that slaves of civilian and military Confederate officials “shall be forever free,” enforceable only in areas of the South occupied by the Union Army. President Abraham Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1.

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1864-1916 Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration

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1864 Southern outrage at the North's use of black soldiers flares up in Confederate forces capturing Fort Pillow, Tennessee, and massacring the black troops within; some are burned or buried alive. President Lincoln refuses to sign the Wade-Davis bill, which requires greater assurances of loyalty to the Union from white citizens and reconstructed governments. 1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1865 Congress establishes the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands to aid four million Black Americans in transition from slavery to freedom. The American Civil War ends on April 26, after the surrender of the confederate generals Robert E. Lee and J.E. Johnston. African Americans collecting bones of soldiers in Cold Harbor, Virginia.

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1866 The states of the former Confederacy pass “Black Code” laws to replace the social controls removed by the Emancipation Proclamation and the Thirteenth Amendment. The U.S. Army forms black cavalry and infantry regiments. Serving in the West from 1867 to 1896 and fighting Indians on the frontier, they are nicknamed “Buffalo Soldiers” by the Indians. With the complicity of local civilian authorities and police, rioting Whites kill 35 Black citizens of New Orleans, Louisiana and wound more than 100, leading to increased support for vigorous reconstruction policies.

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1867-68 Howard University a predominantly black university, is founded in Washington, D.C. It is named for General Oliver Otis Howard, head of the post-Civil War Freedmen’s. The Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution is ratified, guaranteeing equal protection under the law. The South Carolina General Assembly convenes with 85 Black and 70 White representatives; a product of reconstruction, it is the first state legislature with a black majority. Elizabeth Keckley , modiste and confidante of First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln.

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1870 The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church is organized. Hiram R. Revels of Mississippi takes the former seat of Jefferson Davis in the U.S. Senate, becoming the only African American in the U.S. Congress and the first elected to the Senate. Joseph Hayne Rainey is the first African American elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. The Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, guaranteeing the right to vote regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1871-72 Brazil enacts the Law of the Free Womb, which grants freedom to all children born to slaves and effectively condemns slavery to eventual extinction. But immediate and complete abolition is demanded. John R. Lynch speaker of the Mississippi House of Representatives, is elected to the U.S. Congress.

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1877-79 Reconstruction ends as the last Federal troops are withdrawn from the South. Southern conservatives regain control of their state governments through fraud, violence and intimidation. Author Joel Chandler Harris' story, Tar-Baby, an animal tale told by the character Uncle Remus, popularizes the sticky tar doll figure of Black American folktales. It draws on the African trickster tale.

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1881-83 Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama is founded on July 4 with Booker T. Washington as the school's first president. Tennessee becomes the first state to enact Jim Crow legislation, which requires Blacks and Whites to ride in separate railroad cars. Inventor Jan Ernst Matzeliger patents his shoe-lasting machine that shapes the upper portions of shoes.

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1887-92 Florida A&M University is founded as the State Normal (teacher-training) School for Colored Students. Journalist T. Thomas Fortune begins editing the New York Age . His well-known editorials defend the civil rights of African Americans and condemn racial discrimination. On May 13, the Princess Regent of Brazil (in the absence of the emperor) decrees complete emancipation of some 700,000 slaves without compensation to the owners. The offices of the Memphis Free Speech are destroyed following editorials of part-owner Ida B. Wells denouncing the lynching of three of her friends.

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1895 Cornet player Buddy Bolden , legendary founding father of jazz, leads a band in New Orleans, Louisiana. A merger of three major black Baptist conventions leads to the formation of the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., Inc., in Atlanta, Georgia. At the Atlanta Exposition, educator Booker T. Washington delivers his “Atlanta Compromise” speech, stressing the importance of vocational education for Blacks over social equality or political office.

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1896 Harriet Tubman, Frances E.W. Harper, Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, and Mary Church Terrell founded the National Association of Colored Women in response to black women's clubs being refused from exhibiting at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago. Mary Church Terrell becomes the first President of the National Association of Colored Women, working for educational and social reform and an end to racial discrimination.

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1896 Believing African Americans to be the descendants of the “lost tribes of Israel,” Prophet William S. Crowdy founds the Church of God and Saints of Christ. In the Plessy v. Ferguson decision the U.S. Supreme Court upholds the doctrine of “separate but equal.” Paul Laurence Dunbar , acclaimed as “the poet laureate of the Negro race,” publishes Lyrics of Lowly Life , containing some of the finest verses of his Oak and Ivy and Majors and Minors .

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1898 Black sharecroppers picking cotton in Georgia, 1898. On a chilly autumn day, armed columns of white business leaders and working men seized the majority black city of Wilmington by force.

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1899-1900 Composer and pianist Scott Joplin publishes The Maple Leaf Rag, one of the most important and popular compositions during the era of ragtime, precursor to jazz. Originally a slave’s parody of white ballroom dances, the cakewalk becomes a wildly popular dance among fashionable Whites as well as white minstrels working in blackface.

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Booker T. Washington dines with President Theodore Roosevelt at the White House. The dinner meeting is bitterly criticized by many Whites, who view it as a marked departure from racial etiquette. 1901 Students learning dressmaking at Hampton University a historically black university. 1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration

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1903-04 1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration W.E.B. Du Bois publishes The Souls of Black Folk , which declares that “the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color-line,” and discusses the dual identity of Black Americans. In protest to the ideology of Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois suggests the concept of the “Talented Tenth”—a college-trained leadership cadre responsible for elevating Blacks economically and culturally. Joe Gans perhaps the greatest fighter in the history of the lightweight division, loses to welterweight champion Joe Walcott in a 20-round draw.

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1905 1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration The Niagara Movement is founded as a group of black intellectuals from across the nation meet near Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, adopting resolutions demanding full equality in American life. Madame C.J. Walker develops and markets a method for straightening curly hair, on her way to becoming the first Black female millionaire in the United States.

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5,000 white men gathered in Atlanta's downtown and began randomly attacking African-American men, women and boys, pulling them from trolley cars and dragging barbers from their shops. President Theodore Roosevelt orders that 167 black infantrymen be given dishonorable discharges because of their conspiracy of silence regarding the shooting death of a white citizen in Brownsville, Texas, an event later known as the Brownsville Affair. 1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1906 After educator John Hope becomes its President, Atlanta Baptist College expands its curriculum and is renamed as Morehouse College.

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1907-08 1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration Damaged buildings during Springfield, Illinois race riot of 1908. This horrible event led to the formation of the NAACP. Black Primitive Baptist congregations formed by emancipated slaves after the Civil War organize the National Primitive Baptist Convention, Inc. In Springfield, Illinois, the hometown of Abraham Lincoln, a major race riot occurs; the black community is assaulted by several thousand white citizens, and two elderly blacks are lynched.

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1909 1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration A group of Whites shocked by the Springfield riot of 1908 merge with W.E.B. Du Bois' Niagara Movement, forming the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Holding a poster against racial bias in Mississippi are four of the most active leaders in the NAACP movement in 1909. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

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1910 1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration In 1910, William Edward Burghardt Du Bois founded The Crisis magazine as the premier crusading voice for civil rights. W.E.B. Du Bois edits the magazine for its first 24 years. The magazine was and still remains the official publication of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and is the NAACP's articulate partner in the struggle for human rights for people of color.

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1911 1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration The National League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes (National Urban League) is formed in New York City with the mission to help migrating African Americans find jobs and housing and adjust to urban life. National Urban League Julius A. Thomas, Director of Industrial Relations, National Urban League (right) is shown as he received a certificate of merit for significant achievement in introducing Negro engineers and scientists into American enterprise on the basis of proficiency and promise.

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1912-13 1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration The African National Congress is founded as The South African Native National Congress. On April 11, the Wilson administration began government-wide segregation of work places, rest rooms and lunch rooms. Timothy Drew , known as Prophet Noble Drew Ali, founds the Moorish Science Temple of America in Newark, New Jersey. His central teaching is that Blacks are of Muslim origin.

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1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1914 The Universal Negro Improvement Association is founded by Marcus Garvey in his homeland of Jamaica to further racial pride and economic self-sufficiency and to establish a black nation in Africa. George Washington Carver of the Tuskegee Institute reveals his experiments concerning peanuts and sweet potatoes, popularizing alternative crops and aiding the renewal of depleted land in the South.

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Historian Carter G. Woodson founds the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History in an attempt to assist the accurate and proper study of African American history. 1864-1916: Reconstruction and the Start of the Great Migration 1915-16 In Havana, Jack Johnson , the first black heavyweight champion of the world, loses the title in 26 rounds to Jess Willard, the last in a succession of “Great White Hopes.” Rumors claim he lost to avoid legal difficulties. A schism in the National Baptist Convention yields the National Baptist Convention of America, the largest black church in the United States. The period known as the Great Migration begins; between 1916 and 1970 some six million African American Southerners migrate to urban centers in the North and West.

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1917-1935 The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance

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1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance Racial antagonism toward African Americans newly employed in war industries leads to a race riot in East St. Louis, Illinois that kills 40 Blacks and 8 Whites. 1917 James VanDerZee and his wife open the Guarantee Photo Studio In Harlem. The portraits he shoots later become treasured chronicles of the Harlem Renaissance.

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1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance During the “Red Summer” following WWI, 13 days of racial violence on the South Side of Chicago leaves 23 Blacks and 15 Whites dead, 537 injured, and 1000 black families homeless. 1919 Many houses in the predominantly white stockyards district were set ablaze during the 1919 Chicago race riots. The five days of violence were sparked when a black teenager crossed an invisible boundary between the waters of the 29th Street beach, known to be reserved for whites, and the 25th Street beach, known to be reserved for blacks.

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1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance 1919 The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 was a major racial conflict. During the riot, dozens died and hundreds were injured. A police officer provides protection to Black residents of the South Side of Chicago, moving shortly after the riots of 1919.

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Marcus Garvey. leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, addresses 25,000 blacks at Madison Square Garden and presides over a parade of 50,000 through the streets of Harlem. 1920-21 1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance Oscar Charleston, leads his league in doubles, triples and home runs, batting .434 for the year. The Negro National League, first of baseball’s Negro Leagues, is established. Shuffle Along, a musical by Eubie Blake and Noble Sissle, opens on Broadway. It is the first musical written and performed by African Americans.

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1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance Louis Armstrong leaves New Orleans, arriving in Chicago to play second trumpet in coronet King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band. Aviator Bessie Coleman, who later refuses to perform before segregated audiences in the South, stages the first public flight by an African American woman. 1922

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1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance 1923 Pianist and orchestrator Fletcher Henderson becomes a bandleader. His prestigious band advances the careers of African American musicians such as Louis Armstrong, Coleman Hawkins and Roy Eldridge. Ma Rainey (center) and her band, 1923. Charles Clinton Spaulding becomes President of the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. He builds it into the nation’s largest black-owned business by the time of his death in 1952. Blues singer Bessie Smith, discovered by pianist-composer Clarence Williams, makes her first recording. She will eventually become known as the“Empress of the Blues.”

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1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance 1924 Spelman Seminary, which began awarding college degrees in 1901, becomes Spelman College. The school began in 1881 with two Boston women teaching 11 black women in a church basement in Atlanta, Georgia. Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance was a time when remarkable African American literature and art flourished during the 1920s. Writers of the Harlem Renaissance Sterling A. Brown Countee Cullen Jessie Redmon Fauset Langston Hughes James Weldon Johnson Nella Larsen

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1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance 1925 The New Negro , an anthology of fiction, poetry, drama and essays associated with the Harlem Renaissance, is edited by Alain Locke. Singer and dancer Josephine Baker goes to Paris to dance at the Theater des Champs-Élysées in La Revue Nègre , becoming one of the most popular entertainers in France. Countee Cullen, one of the finest poets of the Harlem Renaissance, publishes his first collection of poems, Color , to critical acclaim before graduating from New York University.

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1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance 1925 At a historic literary awards banquet during the Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes earns first place in poetry with The Weary Blues , which is read aloud by James Weldon Johnson. In an era when Ku Klux Klan membership exceeds 4,000,000 nationally, a parade of 50,000 unmasked members takes place in Washington, D.C. A. Philip Randolph , trade unionist and civil-rights leader, founds the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, which becomes the first successful black trade union.

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1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance 1926 The literary journal, Fire!! , edited by young writer Wallace Thurman , publishes its first and only issue. The short-lived publication remains highly influential among the participants of the Harlem Renaissance. Pianist, composer, and self-proclaimed inventor of jazz Jelly Roll Morton records several of his masterpieces, including Black Bottom Stomp and Dead Man Blues.

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1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance 1927 James Weldon Johnson poet and anthologist of black culture, publishes God's Trombones , a group of black dialect sermons in verse accompanied by the illustrations of Aaron Douglas. Poet and playwright Angelina Weld Grimke publishes Caroling Dusk , an anthology of her poetry edited by Countee Cullen. Singer and actor Ethel Waters makes her first appearance on Broadway in the all-black revue Africana . The all-black professional basketball team known as the Harlem Globetrotters is established.

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1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance Poet and novelist Claude McKay publishes Home to Harlem , the first fictional work by an African American to reach the best-seller lists. 1928 Evidence of the ancient Iron Age Nok culture is discovered on Nigeria's Benue Plateau.

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John Hope, noted advocate of advanced liberal arts instruction for Blacks, is chosen as President of Atlanta University, the first graduate school for African Americans. 1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance Nine black youths accused of raping two white women on a freight train go on trial for their lives in Scottsboro, Alabama. The Scottsboro case becomes a cause célèbre among Northern liberal and radical groups. 1929-31 The Duke Ellington Band and the Cotton Club chorus line, 1929. Walter White begins his tenure as Executive Secretary of the NAACP.

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1917-1935: The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance 1932-34 In Tuskegee, Alabama, the U.S. Public Health Service begins a study of the course of untreated syphilis in black men, not telling them of their syphilis or their participation in the 40-year study. Wallace Thurman young literary rebel of the Harlem Renaissance, publishes his satiric novel Infants of the Spring . Wallace D. Fard , founder of the Nation of Islam movement, disappears, leading to the rise of Elijah Muhammad.

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1936-1959 The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement Track-and-field athlete Jesse Owens wins four gold medals in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. His victories derail Adolf Hitler's intended use of the games as a show of Aryan Supremacy. Delta blues musician Robert Johnson makes his legendary and influential recordings in Texas, including Me and the Devil Blues, Hellhound on My Trail, and Love in Vain. Writer and folklorist Zora Neale Hurston publishes her second novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God , which receives considerable acclaim and criticism within the black community. 1936-37

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement In a knockout in the first round of their rematch, heavyweight champion Joe Louis wreaks vengeance on Max Schmeling of Germany, the only boxer to have knocked out Louis in his prime. 1938 Assisted by saxophonist Lester Young, her romantic companion during these years, jazz vocalist Billie Holiday makes several of her finest recordings.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1939 Count Basie leads his legendary Kansas City band, including saxophonist Lester Young, trumpeter Buck Clayton, guitarist Freddie Green, bassist Walter Page, and drummer Jo Jones. Singer Marian Anderson performs at the Lincoln Memorial before an audience of 75,000 after the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to allow her to sing at Constitution Hall. The NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund is organized. Hattie McDaniel (left) wins an Academy Award for best supporting actress for her role in Gone with the Wind.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1940 Duke Ellington leads his greatest band, including bassist Jimmy Blanton, saxophonist Ben Webster, trumpeter Cootie Williams, and composer-arranger Billy Strayhorn. Benjamin Oliver Davis, Sr., who in 1930 had become the first black colonel in the U.S. Army, becomes the first black general in 1940. Painter Jacob Lawrence begins work on his 60-panel Migration series, which depicts the journey of African Americans from the South to the urban North.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1940 Tuskegee Airmen From 1940-1946, some 1,000 Black pilots were trained at Tuskegee

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1941-42 Following considerable protest, the War Department forms the all-black 99th Pursuit Squadron of the U.S. Army Air Corps, later known as the Tuskegee Airmen, commanded by Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. Charles Richard Drew , developer and director of blood plasma programs during World War II, resigns as the armed forces begin to accept the blood of blacks but resolve to racially segregate the supply.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1942 The interracial Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is founded in Chicago as the Committee of Racial Equality. Its direct-action tactics achieve national prominence during the Freedom Rides of 1961. The demonstrators, who belong to an organization known as "CORE“ (Congress of Racial Equality), are urging Harlem residents not to patronize Woolworth stores until discrimination ends in stores in the three southern cities. Congress of Racial Equality

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1943 Dancer Bill “Bojangles” Robinson appears with singer Lena Horne in the wartime all black musical film Stormy Weather . Pulling a man off a streetcar. Detroit Riot, 1943

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1945 Ebony magazine is founded by John H. Johnson of Chicago. Modeled after Life but intended for the black middle class, the magazine is an instant success. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., Pastor of Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, is elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Democrat from Harlem, serving 11 successive terms.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1946-47 Saxophonist Charles Parker, though plagued by drug abuse, produces many of the finest recordings of his career, including Now's the Time, Koko, Yardbird Suite, and Ornithology. Jackie Robinson joins the Brooklyn Dodgers, becoming the first African American baseball player in the major leagues. Historian John Hope Franklin gains international attention with the publication of From Slavery to Freedom , an enduring survey of African American history.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1948-49 Protestors demonstrate against racial discrimination at the Chicago White City Roller Rink (63rd and South Parkway, later King Drive) in 1949. Satchel Paige , legendary baseball pitcher of the Negro Leagues, finally enters the majors after the “gentlemen's agreement” that prohibited the signing of black players is relaxed. Not satisfied with Billboard magazine's label of “race records” for its black music chart, Jerry Wexler, a white reporter at the magazine and later a legendary record producer, introduces the designation “rhythm and blues.”

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1950 1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement Ralph Bunche 1s awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work as United Nations mediator in the Arab-Israeli dispute in Palestine. Gwendolyn Brooks is awarded the Pulitzer Prize for poetry for Annie Allen (1949), becoming the first African American writer to win the award. After refusing to disavow his membership in the Communist Party, Paul Robeson , singer, actor, and activist has his passport withdrawn by the U.S. State Department. Apartheid, long practiced, is formally instituted in South Africa by the ruling National Party.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1952-54 Ralph Ellison publishes his masterpiece, Invisible Man , which receives the National Book Award in 1953. On May 17 the U.S. Supreme Court rules unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that racial segregation in public schools violates the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. In the World Series against the Cleveland Indians, New York Giants outfielder Willie Mays makes “the catch.” The extraordinary over-the-shoulder catch remains one of the most talked-about plays in baseball history.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1955 Lynchings continue in the South with the brutal slaying of a 14-year-old Chicago youth, Emmett Till , in Money, Mississippi. Rosa Parks , Secretary of the Montgomery, Alabama Branch NAACP, refuses to surrender her seat when ordered to do so by a local bus driver, leading to the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-56. Opera diva Leontyne Price is triumphant in the title role of the National Broadcasting Company's Tosca , making her the first African American to sing opera for television. Singer, songwriter, and guitarist Chuck Berry travels from St. Louis, Missouri, to Chicago, where he records Maybellene.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1956 Clifford Brown , the most influential trumpeter of his generation, dies at age 25 in a car accident. Noted for his lyricism and grace of technique, Brown is a principal figure in the hard-bop idiom. Arthur Mitchell , future director of the Dance Theatre of Harlem, becomes the only black dancer in the New York City Ballet. George Balanchine creates several roles especially for him. Tennis player Althea Gibson becomes the first African American to win a major title, the Wimbledon doubles as well as the French singles and doubles and Italian singles. The Sudan gains independence.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1957 The Southern Christian Leadership Conference is established. Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. , and others coordinate and assist local organizations working for the full equality of African Americans. Southern Christian Leadership Conference

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1957 President Dwight D. Eisenhower orders federal troops into Little Rock, Arkansas after unsuccessfully trying to persuade Governor Orval Faubus to give up efforts to block desegregation at Central High School. Fullback Jim Brown begins his professional football career with the Cleveland Browns.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1958 Boxer Sugar Ray Robinson , considered by many to be the greatest fighter in history, wins back the middleweight title for the last time by defeating Carmen Basilio in a savage fight. Alvin Ailey founds the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater. Composed primarily of African Americans, the dance company tours extensively both in the United States and abroad. Mahalia Jackson , known as the “Queen of Gospel Song,” joins Duke Ellington in his gospel interlude Black, Brown, and Beige at the 1958 Newport Jazz Festival.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1959 Raisin in the Sun , by Lorraine Hansberry , becomes the first drama by a black woman to be produced on Broadway. Motown Record Corporation is founded in Detroit, Michigan, by Berry Gordy, Jr.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1959 Singer Ray Charles records What'd I Say, which becomes his first million- seller and exemplifies the emergence of soul music, combining rhythm and blues with gospel. Baseball player Ernie Banks , regarded as one of the finest power hitters in the history of the game, is named the National League's Most Valuable Player for a second consecutive season.

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1936-1959: The Birth of the Civil Rights Movement 1959 Trumpeter Miles Davis records Kind of Blue , often considered his masterwork, with composer-arranger-pianist Bill Evans and tenor saxophonist John Coltrane. Pioneer free jazz musician Ornette Coleman and his quartet play for the first time at New York's Five Spot Café. The historic performance receives a highly polarized reaction from the audience.

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1960-1969 Black Power and a Free Africa

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1960 Jim Stewart and Estelle Axton, found Stax records of Memphis, Tennessee. Inspired by the sit-in movement, jazz drummer Max Roach composes and records the historic Freedom Now Suite.

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Demonstrators demand a stronger civil rights plank outside the GOP convention in 1960 Chicago. 1960 The sit-in movement is launched at Greensboro, North Carolina, when black college students insist on service at a local segregated lunch counter. 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa Cameroon, Togo, Madagascar, Zaire, Somalia, Dahomey, Niger, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic Congo, Gabon, Senegal, Mali, Nigeria, Tanganyika, and Mauritania gain independence.

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1960 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa On September 7th, 1960, in Rome, Wilma Rudolph became the first American woman to win 3 gold medals in the Olympics. She won the 100-meter dash, the 200-meter dash, and ran the anchor on the 400-meter relay team. President Eisenhower signed into law a stronger, more protective Civil Rights Act dealing with the disenfranchisement of Blacks seeking to register and vote.

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1960 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa In April 1960 the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was founded in Raleigh, North Carolina, to help organize and direct the student sit-in movement. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1961 Testing desegregation practices in the South, the Freedom Rides, sponsored by CORE, encounter overwhelming violence, particularly in Alabama leading to federal intervention. Whitney Young is appointed Executive Director of the National Urban league.

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1961 The singing sensation of the Supremes with Dianna Ross, Mary Wilson and Florence Ballard make their first appearance as a group out of Detroit, Michigan. Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993) was appointed to the Second Circuit Court of Appeals on September 1, 1961 by President John F. Kennedy.

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The New Yorker publishes a long article by author James Baldwin on aspects of the civil-rights struggle. Basketball player Wilt Chamberlain becomes the first player to score more than 4,000 points in a regular season NBA games 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1962 The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the University of Mississippi must admit its first African American student, James Meredith. Sierra Leone, Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda gain independence. South African Nelson Mandela is jailed and sentence to five years in prison.

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1962 Civil rights demonstrators marched in Cairo in 1962 to protest segregation in the southern Illinois community. Demonstrators kneel in Cairo in 1962 to protest segregation in the southern Illinois community.

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1962 Ernie Davis , the Syracuse running back, was the first African-American to receive football‘s Heisman Trophy in 1962. Samuel L. Gravely was appointed captain of the Navy Destroyer Escort, U.S.S. Falgout , thus becoming the first African-American to command a United States warship. He later received the rank of Rear Admiral, a first for an African-American navy man.

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1962 Robert (Bob) Moses, Co-Director of the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), an umbrella organization for the major civil rights groups then working in Mississippi. He was a leading Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) figure, and the main organizer of COFO's Freedom Summer project, which was intended to end racial disfranchisement. . Council of Federated Organization

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1963 Medgar Evers , Mississippi field secretary for the NAACP, is shot and killed in an ambush in front of his home. 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa In Birmingham, Alabama, Police Commissioner Eugene “Bull” Connor uses water hoses and dogs against civil rights protesters, many of whom are children, increasing pressure on President John F. Kennedy to act.

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1963 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa The civil-rights movement has a massive march on Washington D.C. and more than 200,000 hear Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. deliver his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. The Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., writes “ Letters from a Birmingham Jail ” to eight clergymen who attacked his role in Birmingham.

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1963 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa The Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama became the site of a viscous attack on Sunday, September 15, 1963. Four little girls were killed when a bomb exploded inside the church where the children were seated. On June 11, 1963, two African-American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, were ushered into the University of Alabama with the National Guard by their side although Governor George Wallace tried to physically prevent them from enrolling at the University.

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1963 Kenya and Zanzibar gain independence. 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa Sidney Poitier wins the Academy Award as best actor for his performance in Lilies of the Field . In 1967 he would star in two films concerning race relations, Guess Who's Coming to Dinner and In the Heat of the Night . The Organization of African Unity (later African Union) is formed.

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1964 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa Malcolm X leaves the Nation of Islam. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act into law. The Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., is awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace. Jazz saxophonist John Coltrane records his masterpiece, A Love Supreme.

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1964 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa LeRoi Jones’s play Dutchman appears off-Broadway and wins critical acclaim. Bob Gipson , pitcher for the St Louis Cardinals, begins an unprecedented streak of seven straight World Series wins. The Twenty-fourth Amendment ends the poll tax in federal elections. Malawi and Zambia gain independence. The bodies of three murdered civil rights workers are found in Philadelphia, MS.

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1964 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa The Newark Community Union Project (NCUP) Police Brutality March across Broad and Market Street in Newark, NJ, 1965. Plainfield, NJ riot.

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1965 The Gambia gains independence. The Voting Rights Act is passed following the Selma-to-Montgomery March. The Watts area of Los Angeles explodes into violence following the arrest of a young male motorist charged with reckless driving. At the riot's end, 34 are dead, 1,032 injured, and 3,952 arrested.

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1965 Dr. Martin Luther King speaks at one of many rallies throughout the Chicago area. Dr. King urges 500 ministers to bring their flocks to a civil rights march on city hall in protest of alleged de facto segregation. Dr. Martin Luther King joins hands with fellow marchers as he leads them on a march to Chicago City Hall in protest to alleged defacto school segregation. Thousands of demonstrators join in the march from Buckingham Fountain to city hall.

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1965 Civil rights demonstrators in Chicago duck in an effort to avoid flying rocks and firecrackers hurled at them during a protest march against housing practices of real estate offices in an all-white neighborhood. Martin Luther King's stay in Chicago resulted in an agreement by local real estate agents to abide by the city's fair housing ordinance in exchange for an end to protest marches.

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1966 The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense is founded in Oakland, California, by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. Charting a new course for the civil rights movement, Stokely Carmichael, Chairman of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, uses the phrase “Black Power”. The African American holiday of Kwanzaa is created by Maulana Karenga.

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1966 Bill Russell , becomes the first black coach of a major professional sports team in the United States. Edward Brooke of Massachusetts becomes the first African American to be popular elected to the U.S. Senate. Botswana and Lesotho gain independence.

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1967 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa After being denied his seat in the Georgia state legislature for opposing the Vietnam War, civil rights activist Julian Bond is finally sworn in. Guitarist Jimi Hendrix makes his debut at the Monterey International Pop Festival. Huey P. Newton is convicted on a charge of manslaughter. Carl Stokes, OH and Richard Hatcher, IN are elected the first African American mayors of major U.S. cities.

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1967 1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa Thurgood Marshall , who as a lawyer argued Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, becomes the first African American U.S. Supreme Court Justice. Singer Aretha Franklin releases a string of hit songs. Heavyweight champion Muhammad Ali refuses to submit to induction into the armed forces. Convicted of violating the Selective Service Act, Ali is barred from the ring and stripped of his title.

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa Actor James Earl Jones wins acclaim and a Tony Award for his role in the Great White Hope. Shirley Chisholm becomes the first Black American woman to be elected to the U.S. Congress. 1968

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1968 Rev. Ralph Abernathy , leader of the Poor People's Campaign, addresses a group in Washington, D.C., 1968. Poor People's Campaign March, New York City - Schomberg Center for Black Research, New York Public Library

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa On April 4 th the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. , is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. 1968 Stunned, silent members of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Dr. King's room, including Andrew Young and Rev. Ralph Abernathy .

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1969 Black Panther cofounder Bobby Seale (left) is ordered bound and gagged by the judge after Seale protests that he was being denied his constitutional right to counsel during his trial for conspiracy to incite rioting at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago the previous year. The group Earth Wind & Fire is formed in Chicago.

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1960-69: Black Power and a Free Africa 1969

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1970-1990 Trailblazers

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1970 1970-90: Trailblazers Baseball player Curt Flood , with the backing of the Major League Baseball Players Association, unsuccessfully challenges the reserve clause but begins its eventual demise. Carl Maxie Brashear was the first African American to become a U.S. Navy Master Diver in 1970.

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1970 1970-90: Trailblazers Flip Wilson came to television with his prime-time variety show called The Flip Wilson Show in 1970. Cleavon Little won a Tony Award for his performance in the musical, Purlie .

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Author Ernest J. Gaines publishes The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. 1971 1970-90: Trailblazers In Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education the Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of court-ordered plans to achieve the busing of schoolchildren in Charlotte, North Carolina. Angela Davis is arraigned on charges of murder, kidnapping, and conspiracy for her alleged participation in a violent attempted escape from the Hall of Justice in Marin county, California.

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1971 1970-90: Trailblazers The Congressional Black Caucus of the U.S. House of Representatives was formally organized in 1971. Congressman Charles C. Diggs, Jr. of Michigan was the founder and head of the first Caucus. Rev. Jesse Jackson organized a new organization with an agenda bent on economic and political action called People United to Save Humanity (PUSH).

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1972-73 1970-90: Trailblazers Writer Ishmael Reed publishes Mumbo Jumbo. Its irreverent tone successfully revives the tradition of the black satiric novel. Shirley Chisholm a member of the House of Representatives from New York, is the first African American woman to make a serious bid for the U.S. Presidency. Gladys Knight and the Pips produce the million-selling album Imagination, winning two Grammy Awards.

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1974 1970-90: Trailblazers Actress Cicely Tyson is lauded for her role as the 110-year old title character of the television drama, The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. Boxer George Foreman falls to Muhammad Ali in eight rounds in a heavyweight boxing match called the “Rumble in the Jungle. Guinea-Bissau gains independence. Baseball player Hank Aaron hits his 715 th home run breaking Babe Ruth’s record which had stood since 1935.

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1975 Playwright Ntozake Shange receives considerable acclaim for her theatre piece for Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide/When the Rainbow Is Enuf. Elijah Muhammad, leader of the Nation of Islam, dies. Frank Robinson becomes the first African American manager of a Major league baseball team. 1970-90: Trailblazers

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1975 Tennis player Arthur Ashe wins the singles title at Wimbledon, becoming the first African American man to win the prestigious championship. 1970-90: Trailblazers Daniel James Jr., was the first African-American promoted to the rank of Air Force four-star general. He was another of the great Tuskegee Airmen.

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Barbara Jordon delivers the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention. Congressman Andrew Young of Georgia becomes the first African American U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. 1976 1970-90: Trailblazers

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1977 1970-90: Trailblazers Alex Haley’s Roots: The Saga of an American Family (1976) is adapted for television, becoming one of the most popular mini-series in the history of American television. Benjamin L. Hooks becomes the Executive Director of the NAACP, succeeding Roy Wilkins. Stressing the need for affirmative action and increased minority voter registration, Hooks serves until 1993.

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In the Bakke decision, the U.S. Supreme Court rules against fixed racial quotas but upholds the use of race as a factor in making decisions on admissions for professional schools. Louis Brock steals his 935 th base, becoming Major League baseball’s all-time career stolen-base leader. 1978-79 Sociologist William Julius Wilson publishes The Declining Significance of Race. United Steelworkers of America v. Weber permits an affirmative action program. 1970-90: Trailblazers

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1980-82 Playwright Charles Fuller wins the Pulitzer Prize for drama for a Soldier’s Story Play. Civil-rights leader Andrew Young is elected mayor of Atlanta, Georgia. Robert Mugabe becomes prime Minister of the newly independent state of Zimbabwe. 1970-90: Trailblazers Singer Michael Jackson creates a sensation with the album Thriller , which becomes one of the most popular albums of all time, selling more than 40 million copies. South African leader Nelson Mandela is transferred from Robben Island to a maximum security prison.

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Writer Alice Walker receives the Pulitzer Prize for The Color Purple. 1983 Harold Washington wins the Democratic nomination, by upsetting incumbent Mayor Jane Byrne and Richard M. Daley and is elected the first African American mayor of Chicago. Civil-rights leader Jesse Jackson announces his intention to run for the Democratic presidential nomination, becoming the first African American man to make a serious bid for the presidency. Guion Bluford, Jr. becomes the first African American in space as a member of the crew of the space shuttle Challenger. 1970-90: Trailblazers

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1984 1970-90: Trailblazers The Cosby Show , starring comedian Bill Cosby, becomes one of the most popular situation comedies in television history. Carl Lewis approaching his Gold medal winning long jump at the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles. Daley Thompson dominated decathlon competitions in the early 80s and earned Olympic gold medals in 1980 and 1984.

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1985-87 1970-90: Trailblazers The Israeli government publicly confirms rumors that some 10,000 Ethiopian Jews have been secretly resettled in Israel beginning in 1977. Playwright August Wilson receives the Pulitzer Prize for Fences. Established by legislation in 1983, Martin Luther King Jr., Day is first celebrated as a U.S. national holiday. Basketball forward Julius Erving , noted for his balletic leaps toward the basket and climactic slam dunks, retires after becoming the third professional player to score a career total of 30,000 points.

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1988 1970-90: Trailblazers The South African government imposes a ban on all antiapartheid groups Runner Florence Griffith Joyner captures three gold medals and a silver in the Seoul Olympics. Jesse Jackson addressing the Democratic National Convention in Atlanta, Georgia, July 19, 1988.

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1989 Modern dancer Judith Jamison becomes the artistic director of the Alvin Alley American Dance Theater. David Dinkins becomes the first African American to be elected mayor of New York City. 1970-90: Trailblazers

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1990 1970-90: Trailblazers John Edgar Wideman becomes the first author to twice receive the prestigious PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction. Author Walter Mosley publishes his first novel, Devil in a Blue Dress. Jazz drummer Art Blakey dies. Since founding the Jazz Messengers in 1954, he is responsible for nurturing generations of young jazz musicians, including Clifford Brown, Jackie McLean, and Lee Morgan.

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1990 1970-90: Trailblazers After serving twenty-seven years in prison, Nelson Mandela , was freed and went to New York City to speak at the United Nations. Denzel Washington won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in the movie, Glory . He also won the Best Actor Award for Training Day in 2001.

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1991 – Present: The Spirit of the Millennium

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1991 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium The Senate votes 52–48 to confirm the nomination of Justice Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court following charges of sexual harassment by former aide Anita Hill during confirmation hearings. With much fanfare, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., is appointed W.E.B. Du Bois Professor of Humanities at Harvard University, where he proceeds to build the university's Department of Afro-American Studies Most of the social legislation that provided the legal basis for apartheid is repealed, though segregation remains deeply entrenched in South African society.

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1991 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium Most of the social legislation that provided the legal basis for apartheid is repealed, though segregation remains deeply entrenched in South African society. Brig. Gen. Marcelite J . Harris became the first African American woman general in the U.S. Air Force. Roland Burris became the first African American Attorney General of Illinois.

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1992 West Indian poet and Playwright Derek Walcott receives the Noble Prize for Literature. Carol Moseley Braun becomes the first African American woman elected to the U.S. Senate, representing the state of Illinois. 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium Riots break out in Los Angeles, sparked by the acquittal of four white police officers caught on videotape beating Rodney King, a black motorist. The riots cause at least 55 deaths and $1 billion in damage.

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1992 Mae Jemison becomes the first African American woman astronaut, spending more than a week orbiting Earth in the space shuttle Endeavour. 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium Author Terry McMillan publishes Waiting to Exhale , which follows four middle-class women, each of whom is looking for the love of a worthy man. The book's wild popularity leads to a film adaptation.

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1992 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium 1992 saw sixteen African Americans elected to Congress in the House of Representatives

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Poet Maya Angelou, composes and delivers a poem for the inauguration of President Bill Clinton. Writer Toni Morrison , winner of the Pulitzer Prize for fiction for Beloved, receives the Noble Prize for Literature. 1993 Cornel West, progressive postmodern philosopher, pens the text Race Matters, which closely exams the black community around the time of the 1992 Los Angeles riots. Joycelyn Elders becomes the first African American woman to serve as the U.S. Surgeon General. 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium

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1994-95 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium With his defeat of Michael Moore, 26, in Las Vegas, Nevada, George Foreman at 45 becomes the world's oldest heavyweight boxing champion. In one of the most celebrated criminal trials in American history, former football running back O.J. Simpson is acquitted of the murders of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman. Minister Louis Farrakhan , leader of the Nation of Islam, rises to the height of his influence as the most prominent organizer of the “Million Man March” of African American men in Washington ,D.C.

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1996-97 Tiger Woods becomes the first African American golfer to win the Masters. 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium At the Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia, sprinter Michael Johnson becomes the first man to win gold medals in the 200 meters and the 400 meters, setting a 200-metre world record of 19.32 seconds. The subject of Ebonics (or Black English Vernacular) is debated throughout the United States. Many African American women join the Million Women March in Philadelphia.

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1998-99 Michael Jordan leads the Chicago Bulls to their six championship. Rosa Parks is awarded the Congressional Gold medal. The mistaken shooting and killing of African immigrant Amadou Diallo, by New York City policemen causes an national outcry. 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium The “ Little Rock Nine ”—nine black students who were prevented from attending a formerly all-white public school and whose case became a test of power between federal and state governments—are awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.

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2000 In response to widespread protest and a boycott by the NAACP, the South Carolina Senate passes a bill to remove the Confederate flag from the Statehouse. 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium Tennis player Venus Williams becomes the first African American woman since Althea Gibson (1958) to win the singles championship at Wimbledon. Roderick Paige is named Secretary of Education and is the first African American to hold this position.

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Bishop Wilton Gregory becomes the first African American to be elected president of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. 2001 General Colin Powell becomes the first African American to serve as U.S. Secretary of State. He was also the first African American Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium Condoleezza Rice is named national security adviser, becoming the first woman and second African American to hold this position.

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2002 Athlete Vonetta Flowers wins a gold medal in the bobsled event, becoming the first African American to win at the Winter Olympics. Halle Berry becomes the first African American woman to win the Academy Award for best actress. 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium Suzan-Lori Parks, with her play Topdog/Underdog, becomes the first African American woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama.

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2003 The U.S. Supreme Court issues a ruling on affirmative action in education, which upholds the use of race in collegiate admissions policies. 1 st Lt. Vernice Armour becomes the first African American female combat pilot to the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Military. 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium

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2004-05 Outfielder Barry Bonds hits his 700 home run. 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium Barack Obama becomes the third African American to be elected to the U.S. senate after Reconstruction. Condoleezza Rice succeeds Colin Powell as U.S. Secretary of State, becoming the first African American woman to hold the post.

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2005 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest, in the history of the United States. The most severe loss of life and property damage occurred in New Orleans, Louisiana, which flooded as the levee system catastrophically failed.

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2007 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium The eloquent silhouettes of artist Kara Walker are the focus of a major traveling exhibit. NAACP Chairman Julian Bond and Vice Chairman Roslyn Brock at the NAACP Annual Convention in Detroit, Michigan.

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2008 Barack Obama is elected President of the United States, becoming the first African American to win that position. 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium

1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium:

1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium Preston Jackson talks about the intricacy of his bronze sculpture commemorating the 1908 Springfield Race Riot. The sculpture is two individual bronzes and is covered with scenes taken from vintage photographs of the event. The 1908 Race Riots of Springfield was the precursor to the birth of the NAACP. 2009

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The NAACP Illinois State Conference, the city of Springfield and the State of Illinois unveiled a large bronze sculpture commemorating the 1908 Springfield Race Riot. The sculpture is two individual bronzes and is covered with scenes taken from vintage photographs of the event. Ken Page and Beverly Peters have the privilege of unveiling the sculpture. The 1908 Race Riots of Springfield was the precursor to the birth of the NAACP. 2009 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium

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2009 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium Presidential Inauguration Day crowd

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1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium 2009 President elect Barack Obama taking the oath of office Swearing in Ceremony at the Capital President elect Barack Obama taking the oath of office

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President Barack Obama delivers his inaugural speech. 2009 1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium

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1991-Present: The Spirit of the Millennium Eric Holder becomes the first African American to serve as U.S. Attorney General. 2009 Susan E. Rice becomes the first African American woman to serve as United Nation’s Ambassador.

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The NAACP believes strongly that future leaders must be developed today, and such development is ongoing in the Youth & College Division, created in 1936. Today there are more than 30,000 young people representing 600 Youth Councils, High School Chapters and College Chapters actively involved in the fight for civil rights. The NAACP has one of the largest organized groups of young people of any secular organization in the country. The Future

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NAACP NATIONAL OFFICERS

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NAACP NATIONAL PRESIDENTS In 1996, the NAACP Board of Directors established the title President/CEO to replace the existing staff title Executive Director / CEO. At the same time, the elected office of President was eliminated. The elected National Presidents are as follows: 1910 – 1929    Moorfield Storey 1930 – 1939    Joel E. Spingarn 1939 – 1966    Arthur B. Spingarn 1966 – 1975    Kivie Kaplan 1976 – 1983    Dr. W. Montague Cobb 1983 – 1984    James Kemp 1984 – 1989    Enolia McMillian 1990 – 1992    Hazel N. Dukes 1992 – 1996    Mrs. Rupert Richardson* *The last elected President

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EXECUTIVE SECRETARIES February, 1910 - March, 1911            Francis Blascoer April, 1911 - June, 1912                      Mary White Ovington June, 1912 - January, 1916                Mary Childs Nerney January, 1916 - February, 1916         Mary White Ovington (Acting) February, 1916 - September, 1917   Royall Freeman Nash May, 1917 - January, 1918                  James Weldon Johnson (Acting) January, 1918 - May 1920                   John R. Shillady September, 1920 - January, 1931      James Weldon Johnson January, 1931 - April, 1955                 Walter White April, 1955 - August, 1977                   Roy Wilkins* Executive Director *Title changed from Executive Secretary to Executive Director

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EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR/CEO August, 1977 - May, 1993                    Benjamin L. Hooks May, 1993 - August,1994                     Benjamin F. Chavis, Jr. September, 1994 - January, 1996      Earl Shinhoster (Acting) PRESIDENT/CEO February, 1996 – December 31, 2004     Kweisi Mfume January, 2005 – August 1, 2005                 Dennis Hayes* August 1, 2005 – February 2007               Bruce Gordon February 2007 – September 14, 2008     Dennis Hayes* September 15, 2008 – Present                  Benjamin T. Jealous *Interim President/CEO

NAACP Illinois State Conference 456 Fulton Street, Suite 218 Peoria, IL 61605 Website http://illinoisnaacp.org:

NAACP Illinois State Conference 456 Fulton Street, Suite 218 Peoria, IL 61605 Website http://illinoisnaacp.org President: Donald R. Jackson, Sr. – Peoria 1 St Vice President: George P. Mitchell – Evanston 2 nd Vice President: Braimah Kanu – Springfield 3 rd Vice President : Dr. Jeanelle Norman – Decatur Secretary: Barbara Jones – Chicago Westside 1 st Assistant Secretary: Norma Joseph – Rockford 2 nd Assistant Secretary: Elizabeth Sherwin – Rock Island Treasurer: Mike Williams – Bloomington/Normal Youth and College President: Spanky Edwards – Peoria Youth and College Advisor: Quincy Cummings – Bloomington/Normal

NAACP Illinois State Conference :

NAACP Illinois State Conference Standing Committees Veteran’s Affairs Education Health Housing Labor and Industry Legal Redress Membership Political Action Economic Development Religious Affairs Youth Work Planning Committee Donald R. Jackson, Sr. ~ Peoria Barbara Jones ~ Chicago Westside Pearly M. Bonds ~ Peoria Howard Johnson ~ Peoria Norma Joseph ~ Rockford Vicky Richard ~ Rockford Berlinda T. Jamison ~ Rock Island George P. Mitchell ~ Evanston Many thanks to our hosts, Peoria Branch NAACP 456 Fulton Street, Suite 218 ~ Peoria, IL 61605 Website http://illinoisnaacp.org/peoria

Music:

Music African Drums Wade in the Water ~ Staple Singers A Change is Gonna’ Come ~ Otis Redding A Train ~ Duke Ellington/Ella Fitzgerald Ain’t Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me Around People Get Ready ~ Jeffrey Osborne Symphony of Brotherhood ~ Miri Ben-Ari We Shall Overcome (Speech Excerpt) ~ Martin Luther King Struggle No More ~ Anthony Hamilton Lift Every Voice and Sing ~ Brooklyn Tabernacle Choir Graphics obtained from world wide web

Thank you to those who fought before us and gave us their shoulders to stand upon. :

Thank you to those who fought before us and gave us their shoulders to stand upon. This presentation was Directed by Barbara Jones Produced by Roger Everette, Steven Page and Barbara Jones Edited by Steven Page and Barbara Jones Music Arrangement and Narration by Brian Taylor April 25, 2009

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