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Preview Starting Points Map: China and India Main Idea / Reading Focus The Qin Dynasty The Han Dynasty Map: Qin and Han Dynasties Faces of History: Shi Huangdi The Growth of China


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Reading Focus How did the Qin dynasty unify and expand China? How did the Han dynasty restore unity and strengthen China’s government? Main Idea The Qin and Han dynasties created strong centralized governments that unified China and shaped Chinese civilization for thousands of years to follow. The Growth of China


The Qin Dynasty Zhou dynasty began to decline around 400 BC, power shifted to local nobles Several small states battled for land, power by 300s State of Qin rose to power Located on China’s western frontier Conquered other states in military campaigns Last rival state fell, 221 BC Qin unified Chinese empire


Rejection of Confucianism Legalists rejected philosophy developed during Zhou dynasty Confucianists thought rulers should be virtuous, lead by example Legalists said rulers should be strong, govern through force Supported strict laws, stressed harsh punishment for even minor crimes Harsh Qin Rule First ruler of new empire took title Shi Huangdi, “first emperor” Unified China with help of two advisors, Hanfeizi and Li Si Founded school of Legalism Taught that powerful, efficient government key to maintaining order


Maintaining Order Shi Huangdi ruthlessly suppressed all criticism of his rule Ordered burning of books which conflicted with Legalist thinking Only books on practical subjects like agriculture, medicine spared Confucian scholars who discussed banned books, criticized Qin government tortured, killed Strong, Centralized Government Shi Huangdi weakened rival nobles by taking land Forced nobles to move to capital so he could watch them Seized all private arms to prevent rebellions Divided China into 36 districts, appointed loyalists to govern them


Qin Reforms Harsh Qin rule unified, strengthened China Standardized laws, writings, monetary systems, weights and measures Also standardized width of cart axles, so all carts could travel China’s roads Qin Growth and Defense Worked to protect empire from outside threats Qin army pushed nomadic warriors farther north, subdued areas to south Joined separate defensive walls, came to be known as Great Wall of China Massive Building Projects Improved irrigation system and increased farm production Expanded network of roads and canals to link capital to other parts of empire Improved transportation, increased trade, levied heavy taxes The Qin Dynasty


Fall of the Qin Dynasty’s policies fueled anger, resentment Qin dynasty crumbled after Shi Huangdi died, 210 BC Peasants fed up with forced labor, high taxes, rebelled Nobles eager to regain land, power, raised armies against new emperor Peasant rebel leader Liu Bang defeated Qin forces, founded Han dynasty


Summarize How did Shi Huangdi unify China and build a strong empire? Answer(s): conquered other states; centralized government; suppressed all criticism; subdued raiders to the north, constructed Great Wall


The Han dynasty ruled China from 206 BC to AD 220—more than 400 years. It would be the model for all later Chinese dynasties. The Han Dynasty


The Han Dynasty


Liu Bang died 195 BC Young son took throne, but too young to rule His mother, Empress Lü, ruled in his place Only one of Liu Bang’s many wives, Lü plotted for son to be emperor Power play Empress Lü died, 180 BC; officials had entire Lü family killed Power plays and court intrigues common during Han, later dynasties Court plots were distracting, made effective rule difficult Family interests After son gained throne, Empress Lü promoted family’s interests Had series of infants named emperor after son died young Maintained power for 15 years A Powerful Empress


Height of Han Dynasty Emperor Wudi ruled from 141 to 187 BC Energetic, aggressive, considered greatest of all Han rulers Promoted economic growth New roads, canals made it easier to get products to market Monopolies on some products; limits on merchants to limit power, wealth The Greatest Han Emperor


Expansion under Wudi Wudi expanded empire through warfare Began to use force against southern Xiongnu tribes, 133 BC Formed alliances with Xiongnu enemies, began to weaken Xiongnu tribes Colonized parts of Korea, Manchuria to northeast, Vietnam to south; extended control into Central Asia to west, opened trade routes The Greatest Han Emperor


Identify Supporting Details Why is Wudi considered to be the greatest Han emperor? Answer(s): promoted economic growth, Confucianism, civil service system, expanded empire through warfare

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