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Monkey Biz-ness Down in Tennessee: 

Monkey Biz-ness Down in Tennessee SEMLA Annual Meeting October 13, 2006 Columbus State University presented by Grover Baker, Librarian The Center for Popular Music Middle Tennessee State University

The Center for Popular Music: 

The Center for Popular Music A Tennessee Board of Regents Center of Excellence at Middle Tennessee State University

Slide3: 

Founded in 1985 Paul Wells, Director One of sixteen Centers of Excellence in TBR system Mission: To foster research and scholarship in American popular music, and to promote an appreciation of America’s diverse musical culture. The Center for Popular Music

Slide4: 

Research library and archive

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Open to all researchers Reading Room hours Monday-Friday, 9:00-4:00 Phone 615-898-2449 Appointments not needed advisable at times Non-circulating collections Reproduction copyright condition Access and use Website: http://popmusic.mtsu.edu/

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Publications, media productions, exhibits

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lectures symposia conferences concerts Public programs

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Music as an aspect of American culture and commerce Historical depth; materials from 18th century to the present Broad representation of all genres of American vernacular music, both sacred and secular Focus on: Rock and its roots Vernacular religious music Music of the region Scope of collection

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Reference collection of books about music biographies, discographies, historical and critical works, reference sources, academic journals Music in various formats recordings, sheet music, broadsides, song books, hymnals Related primary source materials photographs, playbills, posters, trade catalogs, manuscript collections Three broad categories of materials

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10,000 volumes historical and critical works biographies discographies reference sources serials all genres music industry sources Reference collection

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Print media Single song: Sheet music & broadsides Multiple songs: Song books & songsters Recordings Cylinders Discs: 78, 45 & 33 1/3 rpm Cassette tapes Compact discs Music, fixed and sold as a commodity

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Early American sheet music Goldstein collection of song broadsides Blackface minstrelsy Confederate imprints Tennessee imprints Show and motion picture music 65,000 pieces of sheet music

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Song broadsides

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NEH preservation and access grant Over 3,300 broadsides scanned Catalog records enhanced Full text of lyrics entered and searchable Website in progress Broadside digitization project

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Moffatt collection of 18th century British imprints Goldstein collection of pocket songsters Hymnals and gospel songbooks Personality folios Instrumental tutors 7,500 songbooks

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Cylinders to compact discs Commercial releases Field recordings Oral history 160,000 sound recordings

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Minstrel and blackface performers Nashville area club performances 19th century theater Gospel and jubilee programs Posters, Playbills & Programs

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Publicity stills Community bands Music in the home Public performances Instruments Music and religion Photographs

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Instruments Recordings Printed music Recording equipment Playback equipment Trade catalogs

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Personal papers Manuscript music Business records Diaries Scrapbooks Manuscripts

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Music about Tennessee and Tennessee history Music of Tennesseans Products and people of the music business in Tennessee Tennessee materials at CPM

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Songs of battles, generals, events, the home front Sheet music, including binders’ volumes Broadsides Songbooks Exhibits with Stones River National Battlefield The Civil War in Tennessee

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19th century parlor music -- Rags and blues – Gospel -- Music Row Hits Tennessee music imprints Sheet music

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Tennessee music imprints Hymnals and gospel songbooks

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National, regional, and local labels LPs, CDs, and singles Country and rock wannabes Documentation of local musical traditions Tennessee record labels

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Brad McCuen papers Baldwin Opry Photos Related Tennessee Music business collections

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1,500 recordings 600 pieces of sheet music Songbooks Movie and concert posters Chronicles the people and events of Tennessee history by focusing on how Tennessee is thematically represented in music. John S. Mitchell Collection of Tennessee Music

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music inspired by or directly related to the Scopes Monkey Trial broadened to include any sheet music with a theme of: evolution monkeys/apes Sheet music – 55 items Recordings – 35 items Scopes trial subgroup

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VO L U N T E E R VO I C E S “build a free, full-text searchable electronic database of 10,000 unique and historically significant items from Tennessee libraries, museums, and other repositories... [connecting those] libraries, museums, and archives throughout Tennessee directly to teachers, students, researchers, and others.” www.volunteervoices.org

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Growth of Democracy in Tennessee Frontier migration/experiments in representative democracy. Jacksonian democracy and Tennessee’s leadership role in the early republic. Anti-democratic impulses: slavery, free people of color, and removal of Native Americans. Debate over slavery and the Secession Crisis, and the Civil War: Tennessee as a uniquely divided border state. Reconstruction and the freedmen: appearance of hitherto undocumented people in legal records; the fastening of sharecropping on the countryside. Taxation and the narrowing of the franchise: “Jim Crow” laws and poll tax. Utopian Impulses of the 19th century such as Nashoba, Ruskin, and Rugby. New South period and the industrialization of Tennessee. Women’s suffrage and Tennessee’s pivotal role in passage of the 19th Amendment. Boss Crump, prohibition, and machine politics in Tennessee. Scopes trial, rise of fundamentalism, and public education. Tennessee Valley Authority and ‘grass roots democracy.’ Oak Ridge and the WWII effort in Tennessee. Civil rights movement in Tennessee: Highlander School, voter registration in Fayette County, and Nashville sit-ins. Modern Times in Tennessee: papers of modern politicians, media sources, current census data.

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Scopes Trial Subgroup music inspired by or directly related to the Scopes Monkey Trial broadened to include any sheet music with a theme of: evolution monkeys/apes Sheet music – 55 items Recordings – 35 items John S. Mitchell Collection of Tennessee Music

The Process… Beginning: 

The Process… Beginning retrieved 55 pieces of sheet music examined each for relevance identified pieces to be included 55 total pieces 7 photocopies 27 monkey songs 21 Scopes/evolution songs

Copyright Terms: 

Copyright Terms 1 Under the 1909 Act, works published without notice went into the public domain upon publication. Table by Lolly Gasaway http://www.unc.edu/~unclng/public-d.htm

The Process… Determining Copyright Status: 

The Process… Determining Copyright Status 4 published before 1923 (ready for scanning) 16 published between 1923 – 1963 (check for renewals) 1 published between 1964 – 1977 (not included)

The Process… Checking for Renewals: 

The Process… Checking for Renewals http://www.copyright.gov/records/ Search registrations and renewals since 1978 http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/1/1/8/0/11800/11800-8.zip U.S. Copyright Renewals 1950 – 1977 (Does not include musical works!) U.S. Copyright Office Catalog of Copyright Entries... Pt. 5, Music…1891-1977 (microfilm)

The Process… Checking for Renewals: 

The Process… Checking for Renewals 1925 year © registered + 28 original term 1953 renewal year To be safe, searched 1951 – 1955

The Process… Determining Copyright Status: 

The Process… Determining Copyright Status

The Process… Determining Copyright Status: 

The Process… Determining Copyright Status

The Process… Checking for Renewals: 

The Process… Checking for Renewals 1925 year © registered + 28 original term 1953 renewal year To be safe, searched 1951 – 1955 Found copyright renewals for 5 Began scanning remaining 11

The Process… Searching for Copyright Holders: 

The Process… Searching for Copyright Holders Music Publishers’ Association of the United States (http://www.mpa.org/) Searchable directories of music publishers and their imprints. WATCH File (http://tyler.hrc.utexas.edu/) Database of copyright contacts for writers, artists, and prominent figures in other creative fields. ASCAP’s ACE Title Search (http://www.ascap.com/ace/) Database of song titles licensed by ASCAP in the United States. BMI Repertoire Search (http://www.bmi.com/search/) Search BMI’s repertoire of > 6.5 million registered works. SESAC Repertory (http://www.sesac.com/repertory/repertory_ main.asp) Search the SESAC repertory database.

The Process… Orphan Works: 

The Process… Orphan Works copyrighted works whose owners may be impossible to identify and locate. U.S. Copyright Office Report on Orphan Works (http://www.copyright.gov/orphan/) perform a good faith, reasonably diligent search for the copyright owner provide attribution to the author and copyright owner

The Process… Metadata: 

The Process… Metadata Don't Make a Monkey out of Me Hodgson B. C. Knoxville, TN Volunteer Pub. Co. 1925 Evolution Scopes, John Thomas -- Trials, litigation, etc. Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882 Tennessee Dayton (Tenn.) Now the air is full of language it surely is a sight, What is this evoloution [sic] and is it wrong or right? They say we sprang from monkeys, why blame it on the monk, But lots of folks will hope that this is just a lot of bunk Chorus Please don't make a monkey out of me, I never had that kind of pedigree, Mister Darwin may be right and daddy's tail was long, But way down South in Tennessee they think that he's dead wrong When our folks lived way up in a tree, They surely were in high society That evolution line is just a monkey shine, Please don't make a monkey out of me. When the wise men get together and find out what is true Why maybe then we'll all have to go back to the zoo We'll live up in the tree tops and have no use for huts And all day long we'll sing a song and feed on cocoanuts Chorus Please don't make a monkey out of me, I think that's just a piece of cruelty Somewhere coming down the line we had an accident etc…

The Process… Digitization: 

The Process… Digitization Microtek ScanMaker 9600XL 12" x 17" scanner 1200 x 600 dpi 36-bit color depth, 12-bit grayscale Original documents scanned at 600 ppi

The Process… Creating Derivative Images: 

The Process… Creating Derivative Images 1 A note suggested excluding the extra large images if control over print versions was expected to be an issue. Since there may be copyright restrictions, the extra large images will not be created. Derivative images were created using Adobe® Photoshop® Digital Library Center Digitization Standards and Procedures University of Tennessee Knoxville http://diglib.lib.utk.edu/dlc/techdocs/UT_DigitizationStandards2004.pdf

The Process… Creating Derivative Images: 

The Process… Creating Derivative Images 000227-TENN-01.tif Original TIFFs Resolution = 600 ppi Large JPEGs (-lg.jpg) Resolution = 72 ppi Long side = 800 ppi Default JPEGs (-def.jpg) Resolution = 72 ppi Long side = 600 ppi Thumbnail JPEGs (-thumb.jpg) Resolution = 72 ppi Long side = 200 ppi 000227-TENN-02.tif 000227-TENN-03.tif 000227-TENN-04.tif 000227-TENN-05.tif 000227-TENN-06.tif

The Results… : 

The Results…

The Results… : 

The Results…

Lessons Learned: 

Lessons Learned Search for copyright extensions first Read the descriptive information before using a resource Most online databases do not contain the complete catalog of works

Lessons Learned: 

Lessons Learned Plan to multitask while scanning Next to researching copyrights, creating the derivative images is the most time consuming task Be patient!

Slide50: 

Thank you! Questions?

Monkey Biz-ness Down in Tennessee: 

Monkey Biz-ness Down in Tennessee Slides 2-27 adapted from a PowerPoint® presentation created by Paul F. Wells and Lacey Stockhem for the Center for Popular Music Recording Information: “The John T. Scopes Trial,” by Carlos B. McAfee Columbia/15037-D 10" 78 rpm Vernon Dalhart Vocalion/15094 10" 78 rpm Charlie Oaks