Chapter13

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Chapter 13 Programming Languages and Program Development: 

Chapter 13 Programming Languages and Program Development

Chapter 13 Objectives: 

Chapter 13 Objectives Describe various ways to develop Web pages including HTML, scripting languages, DHTML, XML, WML, and Web page authoring software Differentiate between machine and assembly languages Identify and discuss the purpose of procedural programming languages Identify and discuss the characteristics of object-oriented programming languages and program development tools Identify the uses of other programming languages and other program development tools Identify the uses of popular multimedia authoring programs List the six steps in the program development cycle Differentiate between structured design and object-oriented design Explain the basic control structures and design tools used in designing solutions to programming problems

Computer Programs and Programming Languages: 

Computer Programs and Programming Languages What is a computer program? p. 664 Fig. 13-1 Series of instructions that directs computer to perform tasks Programming language—used to communicate instructions

Computer Programs and Programming Languages: 

Computer Programs and Programming Languages What are low-level languages and high-level languages? p. 665 High-level language Low-level language Machine-dependent runs only on one type of computer Often machine-independent can run on many different types of computers and operating systems Machine and assembly languages are low-level

Low-Level Languages: 

Low-Level Languages What is machine language? p. 665 Fig. 13-2 Only language computer directly recognizes Uses a series of binary digits (1s and 0s) with a combination of numbers and letters that represent binary digits

Low-Level Languages: 

Low-Level Languages What is assembly language? p. 666 Fig. 13-3 Instructions made up of symbolic instruction codes, meaningful abbreviations and codes Source program contains code to be converted to machine language

Procedural Languages: 

Procedural Languages What is a procedural language? p. 666

Procedural Languages: 

Procedural Languages What is a compiler? p. 667 Fig. 13-4 Program that converts entire source program into machine language before executing it

Procedural Languages: 

Procedural Languages What is an interpreter? p. 667 Fig. 13-5 Program that translates and executes one program code statement at a time Does not produce object program

Procedural Languages: 

Procedural Languages What is COBOL? p. 668 Designed for business applications English-like statements make code easy to read, write, and maintain COmmon Business-Oriented Language

Procedural Languages: 

Procedural Languages What is C? p. 668 Fig. 13-6 and 13-7 Powerful language originally designed to write system software Requires professional programming skills

Object-Oriented Programming Languages: 

Object-Oriented Programming Languages What is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language? p. 669 Used to implement object-oriented design Major benefit is ability to reuse existing objects Event-driven—checks for and responds to set of events Java, C++, C#, and Visual Basic are complete object-oriented languages Object is item that contains data and procedures that act on data Event is action to which program responds

Object-Oriented Programming Languages: 

Object-Oriented Programming Languages What is Java? p. 669 Fig. 13-8 Developed by Sun Microsystems Similar to C++ but uses just-in-time (JIT) compiler to convert source code into machine code

Object-Oriented Programming Languages: 

Object-Oriented Programming Languages What is C++? p. 670 Fig. 13-9 Includes all elements of C, plus additional features for working with object-oriented concepts Used to develop database and Web applications

Object-Oriented Programming Languages: 

Object-Oriented Programming Languages What is C#? p. 670 Object-oriented programming language based on C++ Accepted as a standard for Web applications and XML-based Web services Uses a JIT compiler Resulting code is called Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL)

Object-Oriented Programming Languages: 

Object-Oriented Programming Languages What is a visual programming language? p. 669 and 673 Often used in RAD (rapid application development) environment Sometimes called fifth-generation language Provides visual or graphical interface for creating source code

Object-Oriented Programming Languages: 

Object-Oriented Programming Languages What is Visual Studio? p. 670 - 672 Fig. 13-10 .NET is set of technologies that allows program to run on Internet Comprised of Visual Basic, Visual C++, Visual C#, and Visual J#

Object-Oriented Programming Languages: 

Object-Oriented Programming Languages What is Delphi? p. 672 Fig. 13-11 Powerful visual programming tool Ideal for large-scale enterprise and Web applications

Object-Oriented Programming Languages: 

Object-Oriented Programming Languages What is PowerBuilder? p. 673 Fig. 13-12 Another powerful visual programming tool Best suited for Web-based and large-scale enterprise object-oriented applications

Other Programming Languages: 

Other Programming Languages What are nonprocedural languages and program development tools? p. 669 and 674 Nonprocedural Language The programmer writes English-like instructions or interacts with a visual environment to retrieve data from files or a database Program Development Tools User-friendly programs designed to assist both programmers and users in creating programs

Other Programming Languages: 

Other Programming Languages What is RPG (Report Program Generator)? p. 674 Fig. 13-13 Nonprocedural language used for generating reports, performing computations, and updating files

Other Programming Languages: 

Other Programming Languages What is a fourth-generation language (4GL)? p. 674 Fig. 13-14 Nonprocedural language that allows access to data in database Popular 4GL is SQL, query language that allows users to manage data in relational DBMS

Other Programming Languages: 

Other Programming Languages What are other available programming languages? p. 675 Fig. 13-15 ALGOL ADA APL BASIC HYPERTALK FORTRAN FORTH LISP MODULA-2 LOGO PASCAL PROLOG PL/1 PILOT SMALLTALK

Other Program Development Tools: 

Other Program Development Tools What is an application generator? p. 676 Fig. 13-16 Program that creates source code or machine code from specification Consists of report writer, form, and menu generator Form provides areas for entering data

Other Program Development Tools: 

Other Program Development Tools What is a macro? p. 676 - 677 Fig. 13-17 Series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task

Web Page Development: 

Web Page Development What is HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)? p. 678 Fig. 13-18 Used to create Web pages

Web Page Development: 

Web Page Development How are special effects and interactive elements added to a Web page? p. 679

Web Page Development: 

Web Page Development What is the common gateway interface (CGI)? p.679 - 680 Fig. 13-19 Communications standard that defines how Web server communicates with outside sources CGI script—program that manages sending and receiving across CGI

Web Page Development: 

Web Page Development What is a scripting language? p. 680 - 681 Fig. 13-20 Typically easy to learn and use JavaScript Perl (Practical Extraction and Report Language) PHP (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) Rexx (Restructured eXtended eXecutor) TCL (Tool Command Language) VBScript (Visual Basic, Scripting Edition)

Web Page Development: 

Web Page Development What is dynamic HTML (DHTML)? p. 682 Fig. 13-21 Allows developers to include more graphical interest and interactivity in Web page

Web Page Development: 

Web Page Development What are XHTML, XML, and WML? p. 682 - 683 XHTML (Extensible HTML) enables Web sites to be displayed more easily on microbrowsers XML (Extensible Markup Language) allows developers to create customized tags WML (Wireless Markup Language) allows developers to design pages specifically for microbrowsers Includes features of HTML and XML Many PDAs and smart phones use WML as their markup language Server sends entire record to client, enabling client to do much of processing without going back to server RSS 2.0

Web Page Development: 

Web Page Development What is Ajax? p. 683 Stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML Method of creating interactive Web applications designed to provide immediate response Combines JavaScript, HTML or XHTML, and XML Google Maps and Flickr use Ajax

Web Page Development: 

Web Page Development What is Ruby on Rails (RoR)? p. 683 Also called Rails Open source framework that provides technologies for developing object-oriented, database-driven Web sites Ruby is derived from a variety of languages, including Ada, LISP, Perl, and Smalltalk

Web Page Development: 

Web Page Development What is Web page authoring software? p. 683 Creates sophisticated Web pages without using HTML Generates HTML

Multimedia Program Development: 

Multimedia Program Development What is multimedia authoring software? p. 684 Fig. 13-22 Combines text, graphics, animation, audio, and video into interactive presentation Used for computer-based training (CBT) and Web-based training (WBT) Software includes Toolbook, Authorware, and Director

The Program Development Cycle: 

The Program Development Cycle What is the program development cycle? p. 685 - 686 Fig. 13-23 Steps programmers use to build computer programs Programming team—Group of programmers working on program

Step 1 — Analyze Requirements: 

Step 1 — Analyze Requirements What is involved in analyzing the requirements? p. 686 Fig. 13-24 Review requirements Meet with systems analyst and users Identify input, output, processing, and data components IPO chart—Identifies program’s inputs, outputs, and processing steps

Step 2 — Design Solution: 

Step 2 — Design Solution What is involved in designing the solution? p. 687 Two approaches Devise solution algorithm, step-by-step procedure to solve problem

Step 2 — Design Solution: 

Step 2 — Design Solution What is a hierarchy chart? p. 687 Fig. 13-25 Shows program modules graphically Also called structure chart

Step 2 — Design Solution: 

Step 2 — Design Solution What is object-oriented (OO) design? p. 688 Fig. 13-26 Programmer packages data and procedure into single unit, an object Objects are grouped into classes Class diagram represents hierarchical relationships of classes graphically

Step 2 — Design Solution: 

Step 2 — Design Solution What is a sequence control structure? p. 688 Fig. 13-27 Control structure that shows actions following each other in order Control structure depicts logical order of program instructions

Step 2 — Design Solution: 

Step 2 — Design Solution What is a selection control structure? p. 689 Fig. 13-28 Tells program which action to take, based on a certain condition Two types Case control structure If-then-else control structure—yields one of two possibilities: true or false

Step 2 — Design Solution: 

Step 2 — Design Solution What is a case control structure? p. 689 Fig. 13-29 Yields one of three or more possibilities

Step 2 — Design Solution: 

Step 2 — Design Solution What is a repetition control structure? p. 689 - 690 Figs. 13-30–13-31 Enables program to perform one or more actions repeatedly Do-while control structure—repeats as long as condition is true Do-until control structure—repeats until condition is true

Step 2 — Design Solution: 

Step 2 — Design Solution What is a program flowchart? p. 690 Fig. 13-32 Graphically shows logic in solution algorithm

Step 2 — Design Solution: 

Step 2 — Design Solution What is an example of a flowchart? p. 691 Fig. 13-33

Step 2 — Design Solution: 

Step 2 — Design Solution What is flowcharting software? p. 690 - 691 Fig. 13-34 Used by programmers to develop flowcharts

Step 2 — Design Solution: 

Step 2 — Design Solution What is pseudocode? p. 690 and 692 Fig. 13-35 Uses condensed form of English to convey program logic

Step 3 — Validate Design: 

Step 3 — Validate Design What is involved in validating the design? p. 693 Check program design for accuracy Logic error design flaw that causes inaccurate results Test data sample data that mimics real data that program will process Programmer checks logic for correctness and attempts to uncover logic errors Desk check programmers use test data to step through logic Inspection systems analyst reviews deliverables during the system development cycle

Step 4 — Implement Design: 

Step 4 — Implement Design What is implementation? p. 693 - 694 Fig. 13-38 Writing the code that translates the design into a program Syntax—rules that specify how to write instructions Comments—program documentation Extreme programming (XP)—coding and testing as soon as requirements are defined

Step 5 — Test Solution: 

Step 5 — Test Solution What is involved in testing the solution? p. 695 - 696 Test copy of program, called beta, sometimes used to find bugs

Step 6 — Document Solution: 

Step 6 — Document Solution What is involved in documenting the solution? p. 696 Programmer performs two activities Reviews program code—removes dead code, program instructions that program never executes Reviews documentation

Companies on the Cutting Edge: 

Companies on the Cutting Edge Video: Electronic Arts Going Mobile

Summary of Programming Languages and Program Development: 

Summary of Programming Languages and Program Development Various programming languages used to write and develop computer programs The program development cycle and the tools used to make this process efficient Web development and multimedia development tools Chapter 13 Complete

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