Natural Resource Management

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Natural Resource Management:

Natural Resource Management K. Ammani Naidu RA/2008-03

Submitted to::

Submitted to: Dr. S Hemalatha Associate Professor Dept. of Agro Forestry AGRO 303 Farming Systems and Sustainable Agriculture

What is a Natural Resource ?:

What is a Natural Resource ? A natural resource is a material that comes from the Earth and in its raw or " natural " state, is of value for one reason or another. For example oil, timber, water, etc.,

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Earth ‘ was ’ very rich in Natural Resources. The endowment of earth was so rich that it could meet the demands of its inhabitants for a long time.

Why does it have to be Managed ?:

Why does it have to be Managed ? Because of the misconception that renewable is inexhaustible , natural resources are over exploited leading to several critical consequence which will put the future plant, animal and human society in serious risk.

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With the unprecedent increase in the population in the last few decades , mankind faces a formidable problem of reduced water, food and other essential requirements.

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Realizing the importance of natural resources, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) at Earth Summit held in Rio-de- janerio ,1992 declared adoption of the Agenda 21 – ‘ A global blue print for environmental action’

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One of the seven themes is, “ Efficient use of natural resources of land, water, energy, forests and biological resources”

Why do we have to study this in Agriculture ?:

Why do we have to study this in Agriculture ? Since Agriculture is one of the major consumer of natural resources, it is essential to modify the present agricultural practices to attain sustainability in resource use.

Resources include::

Resources include: Land resource Water resourc e Vegetative cover Energy resource

Land Resource:

Land Resource India has 2.4% of the world land resource meeting the demands of 18% of world’s population and 15% of livestock. It is facing degradation due to water erosion, wind erosion etc,

Soil erosion:

Soil erosion Soil erosion is a natural geomorphic process , that can be accelerated under improper land management

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Runoff is the most important direct driver of severe soil erosion About 5.3 million ha of top soil is displaced every year only through water erosion

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The best means of reducing soil erosion is by adopting practices such as recycling crop residues, green & animal manures and integrated nutrient management.

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With a very slow rate of soil formation, any soil loss of more than 1 T ha-1yr can be considered as irreversible .

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Erosion is associated with loss of soil nutrients leading to reduced crop yields, decrease in stream capacity and siltation of reservoirs. Additionally, agricultural nutrients and chemicals transported with soil particles have significant impacts on water quality.

Water Resource:

Water Resource Water is one of the most important natural resources vital for survival and economic development.

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Present Per capita water availability is 1700m 3 /annum . The present irrigated area is 53 million ha . It is estimated that even after achieving full irrigation potential, nearly 50% of total cultivable land would be rainfed. Water facts

Water pollution:

Water pollution

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Efficient use of water consists of Water conservation [reduce runoff and deep drainage ] Scheduling of irrigation Conjunctive use of water Participatory irrigation management.

Vegetative Cover:

Vegetative Cover Acts as protective cover for the planet and sink of the CO 2 emissions. Deforestation and over grazing have caused tremendous soil erosion and land slides.

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Annually about 235 million m 3 of firewood is taken against the 40 million m 3 that can be supplied on a sustainable basis. About 90 million cattle units graze while the capacity of forests is estimated support around 31 million units only.

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Measures to conserve and improve vegetative cover are highly essential to restore ecological balance, maintain biodiversity, conserve soil and water.

Aforestation:

Aforestation

Reforestation:

Reforestation

Social forestry:

Social forestry

Agroforestry:

Agroforestry

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Forest Conservation Act 1980 was enacted with a view to check indiscriminate destruction of forest lands. Vegetation management is highly essential to mitigate the effect of increased CO 2

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At a point where most countries are facing severe deforestation, India's forest cover increased by 728 sq km during 2005-07 — a marginal rise of 0.03%. Overall, 21.02% of the country's geographical area is now under green cover. Article: Times of India, Dec 1, 2009 (or so the papers says ) .

Energy resource:

Energy resource Electricity Fuel [petrol,diesel,oil]

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Only when the last tree has died and the last river been poisoned and the last fish been caught will man realise he cannot eat money.

Do Your Part:

Do Your Part