Basic Medical Immunology Microbiology Chap 1audio_1 (2)

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Basic Medical Immunology & Microbiology GMS 6141 University of South Florida :

Basic Medical Immunology & Microbiology GMS 6141 University of South Florida Nick Burdash , PhD


Definitions Immunity: the ability to respond to foreign substances including molecules and microbes Immune System: The specific molecules, cells, tissues and organs that function to provide protection from foreign substances Immune Response: the bodies response to a foreign substance involving cells and molecules of the immune system reacting with the substance to render it harmless

Chapter 1 Introduction to Immunity and Immune Systems:

Chapter 1 Introduction to Immunity and Immune Systems Many organs and tissues of the body serve as a defense system to protect against pathogenic invaders. The immune system functions to eliminate infectious agents, toxins and malignancies. In order to eliminate foreign substances, the immune system must distinguish between self and non-self, this is a chief function.

Innate Immune System:

Innate Immune System The two components of the immune system are the innate and adaptive immune systems The innate system is the first line of defense Is present from birth Consists of non-specific components available before any insult Halts or slows invaders while the adaptive system is generated or up regulated Utilizes preformed effector molecules to recognize broad structural motifs highly conserved within microbial species

Innate Immunity Components:

Innate Immunity Components

Adaptive Immune System:

Adaptive Immune System The adaptive immune system is also called the acquired immune system It is specific in nature, meaning that it recognizes foreign substances, called antigens, via receptors for them on lymphocytes There are two kinds of lymphocytes, B lymphocytes or B cells and T lymphocytes or T cells

B Lymphocytes:

B Lymphocytes B lymphocytes or B cells have surface immunoglobulins that act as antigen receptors When antigen reacts with the B cell immunoglobulin, the B cell differentiates into a plasma cell The plasma cell secretes the immunoglobulin molecules or antibodies into the cells environment B cells, plasma cells and antibodies make up the humoral immune response

T Lymphocytes:

T Lymphocytes T lymphocytes or T cells have a surface receptor similar to the immunoglobulin on B cells The T cell receptor (TCR) is NOT secreted T cell activation requires antigen presenting cells (APCs) APCs have surface molecules called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) that are coded for by a gene region known as the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) These cells and their molecules form a pathway for presentation and recognition of antigens and form the cellular immune response

Comparison of Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems:

Comparison of Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems

B Cell, T Cell Receptors and MHC Molecules:

B Cell, T Cell Receptors and MHC Molecules

Specificity of Adaptive Response by Lymphocyte Receptors:

Specificity of Adaptive Response by Lymphocyte Receptors The generation of antigen binding specificity of T and B cells occurs before antigen exposure through DNA rearrangement Receptors of high diversity and binding potential are created to react with virtually all antigens Before our lymphocytes see specific antigens, they have the ability to react with them because of their ability to rearrange their DNA.

Clonal Selection:

Clonal Selection There are small numbers of B cells or T cells that express the same antigen receptor. When reacted with its specific antigen, B or T cells undergo activation, proliferation and differentiation This process is called clonal selection since a small number of cells programmed to react with a specific antigen, react with the antigen and then multiply producing large clones of cells that also react with that antigen.

Overview Of Adaptive Immune Interactions:

Overview Of Adaptive Immune Interactions

Primary and Secondary Antibody Responses:

Primary and Secondary Antibody Responses

Immunologic Diseases:

Immunologic Diseases Deficiency or dysfunction Immunodeficiency: absence of one or more elements of the immune system, congenital or acquired during life Dysfunction: an immune response detrimental to the host

Immune Balanced Response:

Immune Balanced Response

Key points of Chapter 1:

Key points of Chapter 1 Chief function of the immune system Two components of the immune system and their characteristics Adaptive immunity and specificity B and T cells Clonal selection Adaptive humoral immunity memory Two types of immune disease Balance needed in immune system

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