World War II

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Slide 3:

How the war started in Europe Why Japan conquered countries in Asia and the Pacific region How Japan defeated the British in Singapore and Malaya

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WWI 8.5 million dead Germany after WWI Europe engulfed in war WWII 45 million dead

GERMANY AFTER WWI:

Defeat of the Central Powers by the Allies Treaty of Versailles was signed by both parties Germany had to pay a large sum of money to the Allies for damage caused in WWI GERMANY AFTER WWI

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Germany after WWI Blamed for WWI Very small army and navy allowed War Reparations - paid large sums of money for the damage they caused Lost its colonies and overseas possessions New German government faced many problems Great hardship for Germans RISE OF GERMANY

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Adolf Hitler Under these conditions arose a leader Known for his courage and bravery Formed the Nazi Party National Socialist German Workers’ Party Planned to make Germany rich and powerful again RISE OF GERMANY

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Hitler in WWI

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Mussolini While Hitler was building Germany, the same was happening in Italy Established a dictatorship in Italy Fascist Party was the only Party Secret Police arrested opposition Use of propaganda Public programmes Ambitious plans for Italy RISE OF ITALY

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Austria Czechoslovakia Poland Denmark Norway Holland Belgium France TERRITORIES CONQUERED AS PART OF THE GRAND DESIGN OF HITLER & NAZI GERMANY

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By 1940, Britain was the only Allied country left in Europe to fight the Germans Unable to conquer Britain, Hitler turned to attack the Soviet Union Soviet Union, Britain became allies against the Axis Powers BRITAIN

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Why Japan went to war The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Sweeping into Southeast Asia The Battle for Malaya Fall of the “Impregnable” Fortress Reasons for the defeat of the British THE WAR IN ASIA-PACIFIC

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Rising Ambitions 1894 : Attacked China; lost Taiwan and Korea 1904 : Defeated Russia; shocked the West WWI : Joined Allies 1931 : Great Depression As a result, Japan invaded Manchuria 1937 : Attacked China WHY JAPAN WENT TO WAR

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Rising Ambitions War with China dragged on Countries like the US stopped selling certain items like airplanes and oil products to Japan Japan turned its attention to SEA Rich in tin, oil, timber and rubber War machinery Japan’s calculation WHY JAPAN WENT TO WAR

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Rising Ambitions 1941 - Invaded Indo-china for use as a base to launch its other invasions US protested and when Japan did nothing, the world reacted strongly More war materials such as iron, ammunition and oil were cut off from Japan Note that US was not involved in the war at this time WHY JAPAN WENT TO WAR

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US wanted Japan to withdraw from Indo-china and China Pacific Naval Fleet A display of US military might 7 Dec 1941 - Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Simultaneous invasion of Malaya PEARL HARBOR

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PEARL HARBOR

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PEARL HARBOR

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USS Arizona burning PEARL HARBOR

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A fabulous website on Pearl Harbor.

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Thailand Malaya Singapore Philippines Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) Borneo, Sumatra & other islands British Burma CONQUEST MADE BY JAPAN IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

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War in the air War in the sea War on land Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse JAPANESE INVASION OF MALAYA

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BRITISH BREWSTER F2A BUFFALO Source : http://www.danford.net/straits.htm "SQUADRONS of Brewster Buffaloes, 300 mile-an-hour American made planes which are proving to be first class fighters are among new R.A.F. reinforcements in Malaya. Malaya is the first country in the British Empire east of Suez equipped with these American fighters. They are capable of turning more quickly than any other fighter yet designed. The Straits Times, c1941

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BRITISH BREWSTER F2A BUFFALO Tal Donaldson's portrait of BW-372 found in http://www.danford.net/372talma.htm

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BRITISH BREWSTER F2A BUFFALO Source : http://www.danford.net/prototyp.htm

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JAPANESE ZERO FIGHTER

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REPULSE AND THE PRINCE OF WALES

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30 Nov 1941 “X-day December 8. Proceed with plan.” Lt-Gen Yamashita planned his campaign with the aid of crude school atlases, marking with pencilled crosses, the approximate positions of airfields. “MATADOR” - Britain’s secret plan JAPANESE INVASION OF MALAYA

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1. Sinking of the PRINCE OF WALES/REPULSE 2. Battle for North Malaya – Kedah, Penang and Ipoh 3. Battle for Central Malaya – Slim River 4. Battle for Johore – Jemaluang, blowing up of part of the Causeway 5. Retreat to Singapore DEFEAT OF BRITISH IN MALAYA

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SINKING OF THE PRINCE OF WALES

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KUANTAN JEMALUANG JOHOR BAHRU / 31 Jan 42 IPOH KL SLIM RIVER PENANG 15-16 Dec 41 MUAR GEMAS KLUANG MAJOR BATTLES JITRA 8 Dec 1941 KOTA BAHRU JAPANESE INVASION OF MALAYA

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DEFEAT OF BRITISH IN MALAYA AIR British planes were old and outdated SEA The Prince of Wales and the Repulse were destroyed by the Japanese EQUIPMENT Japanese tanks were better than British tanks TRAINING British soldiers were wrongly trained in jungle warfare PLANNING The British left too much valuable supplies for the Japanese WAR IN EUROPE Britain was involved in the war in Europe. Japan was not . MOBILITY The Japanese troops were more mobile - bicycles DEFENCE Lack of adequate defence preparartions COMPLA-CENCY The British looked down on the Japanese DEFEAT OF BRITISH IN MALAYA Two factors are incorrect – which ones are they?

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