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Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)By Oladokun Sulaiman : 

Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)By Oladokun Sulaiman

National regulations dilema : 

National regulations dilema National or regional regulations may be both ineffective and inefficient: May be evaded Different national regulations cause inefficiencies and competitive distortions Global standards necessary to avoid a “race to the bottom” A globalised industry requires global regulations

Regutory framework : 

3 Regutory framework Market access: WTO (1995) National UNCTAD/OECD Safety and environment: IMO (1948) Working conditions and social standards: ILO (1919) Competition policy: National / Regional (EU) UNCTAD / OECD

Regional vs. Global regulations : 

4 Regional vs. Global regulations Exxon Valdez grounding in Alaska, 1989 Oil spill of 37 000 tons crude oil Triggered the US Oil Pollution Act (OPA 90) Double hull requirement for new oil tankers Phasing out existing single hull tankers by 2015 MARPOL Annex I amendments Erika, France 1999 EU pressure for accelerated phasing out of single hull tankers MARPOL Annex I amended April 2001 Prestige, November 2002 Unilateral EU-regulation (Regulation (EC) No 417/2002) – MARPOL Annex I amended December 2003

Enforcement : 

5 Enforcement To be sustainable global standards must Meet the legitimate requirements of Shippers Shipowners Environmental interests Consumer interests The general public Be credibly enforced by Flag states Port states Classification societies

The maritime safety regime – summing up : 

6 The maritime safety regime – summing up Flag state: Provide and implement maritime safety regulations Class: Enforcement through classification and certification Shipowner: Ensure implemented standards being maintained Port state: Verify implementation and enforcement

The present safety situationSome observations : 

The present safety situationSome observations Demands for higher safety Increasing political pressure Increasing volume and scope of regulations Disaster triggered regulations More regional solutions? – Why? No lack of regulations – but lack of compliance?

Lack of compliance? Paris MoU and Tokyo MoU statistics : 

8 Lack of compliance? Paris MoU and Tokyo MoU statistics Source: OECD

Background : 

Background SOLAS is the oldest and most important international conventions dealing with maritime safety SOLAS conventions cover all aspect of safety at sea are : -First adopted at a conference held in London in 1914, in response to the 1912 Titanic disaster . -The second was adopted in 1929 and entered into force in 1933; the third was adopted in 1948 and entered into force in 1952; -The fourth was adopted (under the auspices of IMO) in 1960 and entered into force in 1965; and -The present version was adopted in 1974 and entered into force in 1980. The 1914 version is concerned primary concern is human life, cover chapters on safety of navigation, construction, radiotelegraphy, life-saving appliances and fire protection. The late 19th and early 20th centuries represented the golden age of passenger travel by sea, as well as high frequency of accident and heavy causalities. The annual loss of life from British ships alone averaged between 700 and 800 during this period.

SOLAS 1960 : 

SOLAS 1960 The 1960 Convention - which was adopted on 17 June 1960 and entered into force on 26 May 1965 – was the first major task for IMO after the Organization's creation and it represent: - Modernization of regulation -Keep pace with technical developments in the shipping industry. -Keep convention up to date by periodic amendments Limitation : -amendments procedure incorporated is very slow - amendment shall enter into force after being accepted by, two thirds of the Parties -difficulty to secure the entry into force of amendments within a reasonable period of time.

SOLAS 1960 : 

SOLAS 1960 Subsequent amendment under 1960 SOLAS Convention that follows are: -1966: amendments to Chapter II, dealing with special fire safety measures for passenger ships. -1967: six amendments adopted, dealing with fire safety measures and arrangements for life-saving -appliances on certain tankers and cargo ships; VHF radiotelephony in areas of high traffic density; novel types of craft; and the repair modification and outfitting of ships. -1968: new requirements introduced into Chapter V dealing with shipborne navigational equipment, the use of automatic pilot and the carriage of nautical publications. -1969: various amendments adopted, dealing with such matters as firefighters' outfits and personal equipment in cargo ships; specifications for lifebuoys and lifejackets; radio installations and shipborne navigational equipment. -1971: regulations amended concerning radiotelegraphy and radiotelephony and routeing of ships. -1973: regulations concerning life-saving appliances; radiotelegraph watches; pilot ladders and hoists. The major amendment was a complete revision of Chapter VI which deals with the carriage of grain.

SOLAS 1974 : 

SOLAS 1974 This led to adoption of new Convention in 1974 held in London from 21 October to 1 November and was attended by 71 countries. The Convention which is adopted through tacit procedure in Article VIII. Article VIII states that amendments to the chapters (other than chapter I) of the Annex, which contain the Convention's technical provisions - shall be deemed to have been accepted within two years (or a different period fixed at the time of adoption) unless they are rejected within a specified period by one-third of Contracting Governments or by Contracting Governments whose combined merchant fleets represent not less than 50 per cent of world gross tonnage.

SOLAS 1974 : 

SOLAS 1974 The tacit acceptance procedure described above proves the most rapid and effective way of securing the entry into force of amendments to the technical annex (other than Chapter I) and is now invariably used. As a result the 1974 Convention has been updated and amended on numerous occasions. The Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea was adopted by an IMO conference in 1972 and entered into force in 1977. It is significant that this Convention, like SOLAS, also incorporates a "tacit acceptance" procedure.

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 : 

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 Chapter I - General Provisions Chapter II-1 - Construction - Subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical installations Chapter II-2 - Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction Chapter III - Life-saving appliances and arrangements Chapter IV - Radiocommunications Chapter V - Safety of navigation Chapter VI - Carriage of Cargoes Chapter VII - Carriage of dangerous goods Chapter VIII - Nuclear ships Chapter IX - Management for the Safe Operation of Ships Chapter X - Safety measures for high-speed craft Chapter XI-1 - Special measures to enhance maritime safety Chapter XI-2 - Special measures to enhance maritime security

Chapter II-2: Construction - Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction : 

Chapter II-2: Construction - Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction This chapter includes a number of important changes from the 1960 version mainly in the area of fire safety The 1974 Conference found it necessary to divide the chapter into two sections. The main points of the chapters are as follows: Chapter II-1 and Chapter II-2

Chapter II-1: Construction - subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical installations : 

Chapter II-1: Construction - subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical installations The subdivision of passenger ships into watertight compartments must be such that after assumed damage to the ship's hull the vessel will remain afloat in a stable position. Requirements for the watertight integrity and bilge pumping arrangements for passenger ships. The degree of subdivision - measured by the maximum permissible distance between two adjacent bulkheads - varies with the ship's length and the service in which it is engaged. The requirements for machinery and electrical installations are designed to ensure that services which are essential for the safety of the ship, passengers and crew are maintained under various emergency conditions.

Chapter II-2: Construction - Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction : 

Chapter II-2: Construction - Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction Casualties to passenger ships through fire in the early 1960s emphasized the need to improve the fire protection provisions of the 1960 Convention, and in 1966 and 1967 amendments were adopted by the IMO Assembly. These and other amendments, particularly detailed fire safety provisions for passenger ships. Chapter II-2 of SOLAS, Fire Protection, Fire Detection and Fire Extinction, has been revised and enters into force on 1 July 2002.

Chapter II-2: Construction - Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction : 

Chapter II-2: Construction - Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction Tankers and combination carriers, have been incorporated in this chapter, including requirements for inert gas systems in tankers. These provisions are based on the following principles: 1. Division of the ship into main and vertical zones by thermal and structural boundaries. 2. Separation of accommodation spaces from the remainder of the ship by thermal and structural boundaries. 3. Restricted use of combustible materials. 4. Detection of any fire in the zone of origin. 5. Containment and extinction of any fire in the space of origin. 6. Protection of the means of escape or of access for fire-fighting purposes. 7. Ready availability of fire-extinguishing appliances. 8. Minimization of the possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapour.

Regulation : 

Regulation Regulation 1 Application Regulation 2 Fire safety objectives and functional requirements Regulation 3 Definitions Regulation 4 Probability of ignition Regulation 5 Fire growth potential Regulation 6 Smoke generation potential and toxicity Regulation 7 Detection and alarm Regulation 8 Control of smoke spread Regulation 9 Containment of fire Regulation 10 Fire fighting Regulation 11 Structural integrity Regulation 12 Notification of crew and passengers Regulation 13 Means of escape Regulation 14 Operational readiness and maintenance Regulation 15 Instructions, onboard training and drills Regulation 16 Operations Regulation 17 Alternative design and arrangements Regulation 18 Helicopter facilities Regulation 19 Carriage of dangerous goods Regulation 20 Protection of vehicle, special category and ro-ro spaces

The 1978 SOLAS Protocol : 

The 1978 SOLAS Protocol Series of accidents involving oil tankers in the winter of 1976-77, led to increasing pressure for further international action. The previous acceptance requirement by25 states owing 50% of word tonnage affected urgency related to 1978 protocol. IMO convened an international conference on tanker safety and pollution prevention which adopted a number of important modifications to SOLAS as well as to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), 1973. Since the 1974 SOLAS Convention had not entered into force it was impossible to amend the Convention.

The 1978 SOLAS Protocol : 

The 1978 SOLAS Protocol Instead the conference decided to adopt a Protocol which would enter into force six months after ratification by 15 States with 50 per cent of world tonnage of merchant ships (but not before the parent 1974 SOLAS Convention had entered into force). The Protocol entered into force on 1 May 1981. The main points of the Protocol are as follows: 1. New crude carriers and product carriers of 20,000 dwt and above are required to be fitted with an inert gas system (Chapter II-2). 2. An inert gas system is mandatory for existing crude oil carriers of 70,000 dwt as of 1 May 1983, and as of 1 May 1985 for ships of 20,000-70,000 dwt (Chapter II-2).

The 1978 SOLAS Protocol : 

The 1978 SOLAS Protocol 3. In the case of crude carriers of 20,000-40,000 dwt there is provision for exemption by flag States where it is considered unreasonable or impracticable to fit an inert gas system and high-capacity fixed washing 4. machines are not used. But an inert gas system is always required when crude oil washing is operated Chapter II-2). An inert gas system is required on existing product carriers as from 1 May 1983 and as from 1 May 1985 for ships of 40,000-70,000 dwt and down to 20,000 dwt where ships are fitted with high capacity washing machines (Chapter II-2). 6. All ships of 1,600-10,000 tons gross tonnage are required to be fitted with radar, and ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and above must have two radars, each capable of operating independently.

Amendment : 

Amendment Further amendments to SOLAS were adopted by the MSC in April 1989. They also entered into force on 1 February 1992. The 1981 Amendments As previously noted, the 1974 Convention basically consists of the 1960 version incorporating the amendments adopted between 1966 and 1973, together with the new "tacit acceptance" procedure. The 1983 Amendments The second set of amendments to the SOLAS Convention was adopted in November 1983 and entered into force on 1 July 1986. The (April) 1988 Amendments In March 1987 the roll-on/roll-off passenger ferry Herald of Free Enterprise capsized and sank shortly after leaving Zeebrugge in Belgium. The accident resulted in the deaths of 193 passengers and crew members and led to demands for action to improve the safety of a ship type which has proved outstandingly successful from a commercial point of view. The (October) 1988 Amendments 10 In October 1988 the MSC met again in a special session requested and paid for by the United Kingdom to consider a second package of amendments arising from the Herald of Free Enterprise tragedy. The amendments adopted entered into force on 29 April 1990. The November 1988 Protocols (Harmonization) The April and October amendments were all adopted in response to an emergency. By contrast the other changes made to SOLAS during 1988 were all the result of many years of careful deliberation. They involved two subjects - the introduction of the Global Maritime Distress and Sa The 1988 (GMDSS) Amendments Work on the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) began in the 1970s and the amendments entered into force on 1 February 1992. The System is being phased in between 1 February 1992 and 1 February 1999. The April 1989 Amendments

Amendment : 

Amendment The May 1990 Amendments Important changes were made to the way in which the subdivision and damage stability of cargo ships is determined. They apply to ships of 100 metres or more in length built on or after 1 February 1992. The May 1991 Amendments Perhaps the main change made in these amendments, which entered into force on 1 January 1994, was the 12 complete rewriting of Chapter VI, which previously only covered the carriage of grain. The amendments extended the chapter to cover other cargoes, including bulk cargoes. The April 1992 Amendments Measures to improve the damage stability of passenger ships came into force on 29 April 1990 and the April 1992 amendments to regulation 8 of Chapter II-1 mean that a slightly modified "SOLAS 90" standard will be phased in for ro-ro passenger ships built before that date during an 11-year period beginning on 1 October 1994. The phase-in period allowed depends upon the value of a ratio A/Amax, determined in accordance with a calculation procedure developed by the Maritime Safety Committee to assess the survivability characteristics of existing ro-ro passenger ships. The December 1992 Amendments The amendments are concerned primarily with construction requirements for new tankers and fire safety standards for new passenger ships built on or after 1 October 1994, the date on which the amendments entered into force under the Convention's "tacit acceptance" provisions. The May 1994 amendments: the SOLAS conference Although some of the 1994 amendments were adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee expanded to include all Contracting Governments (see below), for legal reasons, others were dealt with by a special conference. The changes made by the conference included the addition of three new chapters to the Convention.

Amendment : 

Amendment The May 1994 amendments: the expanded MSC The amendments entered into force on 1 January 1996 and include the following: The amendments, which entered into force on 1 July 1996, affect a number of regulations in Chapters VI and VII and make mandatory parts of the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing. The May 1995 amendments The amendments replace regulation 8 of Chapter V with a new text. It recognizes IMO as the only Organization responsible for developing criteria for ship routeing systems and defines how this should be prepared and submitted. The amendment entered into force on 1 January 1997. The November 1995 amendments Major changes to international rules designed to improve the safety of roll on/roll off passenger ships were adopted by a conference held to consider proposals put forward by a Panel of Experts set up by IMO in December 1994 following the Estonia disaster of September 1994, in which more than 850 people were killed. The June 1996 amendments The amendments include the complete replacement of the existing text of Chapter III, which deals with lifesaving appliances and arrangements. The amendments take into account changes in technology that have occurred since the chapter was last revised in 1983.

Amendment : 

Amendment The December 1996 amendments The amendments concern three chapters of the Convention and the International Bulk Chemicals (IBC) Code and the International Gas Carrier (IGC) Code, both of which are mandatory under SOLAS. The June 1997 Amendments A new regulation on Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) was adopted and is due to enter into force on 1 July 1999. VTS are traffic management systems, for example those used in busy straits. The November 1997 amendments (Conference) The amendments add a new Chapter XII to the Convention entitled Additional Safety Measures for Bulk Carriers. The amendments are expected to enter into force on 1 July 1999 under tacit acceptance. The May 1998 Amendments The amendments are due to enter into force on 1 July 2002, under the tacit acceptance procedure.

The future of SOLAS : 

The future of SOLAS The SOLAS Convention is now so widely accepted that, to some extent at least, virtually every ship in the world complies with it. Thanks to the tacit acceptance amendment procedure it has proved possible to keep the Convention up to date . SOLAS will continue to evolve in the future as it has in the past. The whole of Chapter V on Safety of Navigation is currently being brought up to date, especially to take the human factor into account. However, it is expected that the rate of amendments will slow down in the next few years. While it is important to keep instruments such as SOLAS up to date, many countries have experienced difficulty in coping with the changes that have been made in recent years. In May 1991 the MSC agreed that future amendments would only enter into force once every four years. The normal date of entry into force (under tacit acceptance) is now on 1 July. Although the four-year rule is the norm, the IMO is able to adopt amendments at shorter intervals in exceptional circumstances

Classification societiesRules and standards : 

Classification societiesRules and standards Rules developed to define standards related to: Seaworthiness for intended trading area Focus on safety for crew, vessel and cargo Strength and stability Quality assurance of additional equipment Development of rules: A continous process Feedback from surveys R&D programs New technologies require new rules

The classification processNewbuildings : 

The classification processNewbuildings Assessment/approval of design documentation Inspection and certification of materials, machinery components etc. Supervision during construction and testing Class is specified in the contract between builder and owner. Class client to builder. The classification certificate is issued upon delivery

The classification processShips in operation : 

12.02.2009 31 The classification processShips in operation Annual, intermediate and 5-year renewal survey to verify that standards are maintained Scope of surveys increases with age of ship Contractual relationship is now between shipowner and class Repairs/conversions etc. are subject to survey and approval

Flag states and classification : 

Flag states and classification Most flag states are authorising classification societies to carry out inspections and issue certificates on their behalf Statutory Classification IMO has issued a resolution with guidelines for such recognition EU has issued an EU Directive with additional requirements

Other functions covered by Classification Societies : 

Other functions covered by Classification Societies Assistance to Flag States in their participation in the work of IMO Advisory services in selected fields (not to present any conflict of interest) Certification according to ISO9000 and ISO14001 Training of personnel

Classification societies Port State detention ratios by Class : 

34 Classification societies Port State detention ratios by Class

Other international shipping organisations : 

Other international shipping organisations INTERTANKO – Independent tanker owners ITERCARGO – Bulk shipowners OCIMF – Oil companies’ maritime forum ICS – Shipowners’ national organisations SIGTTO – Gas shipowners and gas technical operators IACS – Ship classification societies UMI – Marine hull and machinery insurers P&I Int. – P&I clubs

International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) : 

12.02.2009 36 International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) 10 members fulfilling membership criteria Classing 95% of world fleet tonnage Quality system certification of members Code of ethics Promoting improvements of standards of safety Participating in the work of IMO Maintaining close connection with the world’s maritime industries Secretariat in London (www.iacs.org.uk)

The 10 IACS members : 

12.02.2009 37 The 10 IACS members LR – Lloyds Register (UK) DNV – Det Norske Veritas (Norway) ABS – American Bureau of Shipping (USA) GL – Germanisher Lloyd (Germany) PRS - Polski Rejerstr Statkow (Poland) BV – Burau Veritas (France) RINA - Registro Italiano Navale (Italy) KR – Korean Register of Shipping (Korea) CCS – China Classification Society (China) NK – Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (Japan)

Class Societies’ market share : 

38 Class Societies’ market share DNV BV

Accidents and Causes : 

39 Accidents and Causes All accidents have multiple causes The chain of events leading to accidents include the human element Accidents are the symptoms The basic cause Lack of control (inadequate management)

DNV Loss/causation model : 

40 DNV Loss/causation model Management Control Inadequate Policy Systems Compliance with the system Basic Causes Organisational factors Human Process Hardware Immediate Causes Substandard Acts Conditions Quality Events Undesired Defects Deviations Non-Conform-ities Loss of Quality Product Reputation Customer Oppor-tunities

DNV Loss/causation modelActions : 

DNV Loss/causation modelActions Management Control Basic Causes Immediate Causes Quality Events Loss of Quality Present Situation Desired Situation Control Actions

World fleet casualty history : 

12.02.2009 42 World fleet casualty history

Annual total losses : 

12.02.2009 43 Annual total losses

The ultimate aim of quality/safety management: A quality/safety culture : 

12.02.2009 44 The ultimate aim of quality/safety management: A quality/safety culture

The maritime safety regime – summing up : 

12.02.2009 45 The maritime safety regime – summing up Flag state: Provide and implement maritime safety regulations Class: Enforcement through classification and certification Shipowner: Ensure implemented standards being maintained Port state: Verify implementation and enforcement

The present safety situationSome observations : 

12.02.2009 46 The present safety situationSome observations Demands for higher safety Increasing political pressure Increasing volume and scope of regulations Disaster triggered regulations More regional solutions? – Why? No lack of regulations – but lack of compliance?

Lack of compliance? Paris MoU and Tokyo MoU statistics : 

12.02.2009 47 Lack of compliance? Paris MoU and Tokyo MoU statistics Source: OECD

The challenge of enforcement : 

48 The challenge of enforcement To be sustainable global standards must Meet the legitimate requirements of Shippers Shipowners Environmental interests Consumer interests The general public Be credibly enforced by Flag states Port states Classification societies

The role of the flag states (UNCLOS) : 

12.02.2009 49 The role of the flag states (UNCLOS) Specified in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Right to set conditions for granting registration, including Administrative Technical, and Social policy matters Obligation to ensure that a vessel meets all relevant conditions Responsible for enforcing agreed safety regulations through national maritime law

Flag states ability to enforce regulations : 

12.02.2009 50 Flag states ability to enforce regulations Some flag states seem to have problems enforcing regulations Lack of capability or will? This has triggered increased port state control

Port state controlThe regime : 

12.02.2009 51 Port state controlThe regime Ports (states) where ships are calling may board ships and check status of certification do physical inspections verify that ships comply with international conventions In case of serious deficiencies, ships may be detained until rectification has been carried out Detentions may be extremely costly to the shipowner

Port state controlExamples of co-operation : 

52 Port state controlExamples of co-operation Co-operation between port states in enforcing international standards Paris MoU, 1982 Tokyo MoU, 1993 Latin America, 1992 Co-operating on: Exchanging ship information Check lists Targeting criteria Increased transparancy in Europe through the Equasis database

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