Tomato Grafting

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Propagate tomatoes by grafting.

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Tomato Grafting:

Tomato Grafting

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What is grafting? Why Graft Tomatoes? Grafting methods.

What is grafting?:

What is grafting? Grafting – joining the parts of 2 separate plants (scion and rootstock) so that they will unite and continue to grow as a single plant. Scion – That part or the union to be attached to the rootstock Rootstock – That part of the union which contains the root portion

Why graft tomatoes?:

Why graft tomatoes? Advantages of rootstock: Resistance to soil-borne pests Fusarium wilt Bacterial wilt Verticillium wilt Root-knot nematodes

And More -:

And More - Increased nutrient uptake To adjust scion growth and earliness To increase fruit size, yield and quality Scion importance, Desirable variety for Unique traits Quality Yield

Disadvantages of Grafting:

Disadvantages of Grafting Grafting requires: Space Materials Possible incompatibility Rootstock must match with scion Expertise Increased cost: Cost for rootstocks – not cheap Cost of labor Try out first on small scale

Needs for tomato grafting:

Needs for tomato grafting Rootstock s Scions Razor blades Silicon tubes A healing chamber

Rootstock selection:

Rootstock selection Cheong Gang – F (1,2), V, BW, RN RST-04-105T - F (1,2), V, BW, RN Rst-04-106T - F (1,2), V, BW, RN BHN 998 - F (1,2), V, BW, RN BHN 1054 - F (1,2), V, BW, RN

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Development of tube grafting protocol Check and make sure than both the rootstock and scion have matching stem diameters by checking with the flexible silicon grafting clips

Tube clips:

Tube clips Transparent in color allowing you to see contact High heat resistance Automatically fall off as plant grows Available in many diameters

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Scion – The scion of the grafted tomato represents the upper portion of the plant and is selected for its fruit quality characteristics Razor blades – use old fashion double edged blades and snap it in half lengthwise while it is still in its paper cover. It is important to use this type of blade because they are thinner and sharper than other types of razor blades

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After cutting the rootstock at 45° angle, clip off the cotyledon leaves and one extra leaf from the scion (if needed). Cut the scion at a 45° angle.

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Slide the silicon grafting tube to the rootstock

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Match the scion

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Grafted plants

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Rootstock/scion Planting schedule BHN 602 (scion) D Jjak Kkung D+7 Cheong Gang D+4 RST 106 BHN 998 BHN 1053 BHN 1054 D+7 D+4 D+4 D+4 Hawaii 7998 D+7 Hawaii 7996 D+7 Self-graft (BHN 602) D 1 Success rate (%) - 60.4 85.2 63.7 90.9 85.3 84.5 50.8 87.6 85.1

Life in the Chamber:

Life in the Chamber Objectives of the healing Chamber - Reduce water stress by slowing the transpirational stream . • Humidity • Light • Temperature

Healing:

Healing Healing conditions Relative humidity of 95% or greater, gradually decrease toward the end Air temperature inside healing chamber of 82-84 F Light intensity – darkness for first 24-48 hours and then provide light Duration 4-6 days Healing systems Healing chambers with artificial light Healing chambers in greenhouse with natural light

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Healing chamber Water-holding on plastic sheet One layer each of transparent plastic and black plastic on top

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Inside Healing chamber Humidifier: 80-90% R.H

After healing, the plants must be re-acclimated to the full-sun conditions gradually over a period of 3-4 days.:

After healing, the plants must be re-acclimated to the full-sun conditions gradually over a period of 3-4 days.

Timeline:

Timeline

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Acclimatization zone

Management of Grafted Transplants:

Management of Grafted Transplants Need to be aware of where graft is: Plant may break easier at grafted point When planting make sure graft union is above the ground Remove all suckers that come up below the graft union Depending upon the rootstock and scion varieties can manage the plant to have 1 or 2 leading shoots (2 only on indeterminate scions)

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Verticillium wilt Root-knot nematodes Bacterial wilt Scion: Hort traits & resistance to foliar diseases. Fusarium wilt Southern blight Grafting: Root-knot nematode and bacterial wilt management Rootstocks: Soil-borne diseases resistance & Hort Traits

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2011-2012 Trial info. Quincy, FL Painter, VA Fumigation No No Field history with M. incognita Yes No Field inoculum Natural; Inoculum levels increased by planting squash variety “Dixie”. Plants disked into the soil 2.5 months after planting. Grafted plants transplanted into the field after field preparation, and laying plastic. Artificial; squash variety “Conqueror III”planted in May; 4000 M. incognita eggs inoculated under each plant. Plants disked into the soil 2.5 months after planting. Grafted plants transplanted into the field after field preparation and laying plastic. M. incognita race differentiation Race 3 -

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Entry Fruit yield (kg.ha 1 ) Root Gall Index 1 (RGI) Medium Large Extra Large Total ‘RST-04-106-T’ 6,511 bc 2 11,905 ab 22,449 b 40,864 bc 1.2 b ‘BHN 998’ 9,167 a 14,299 a 28,556 a 52,022 a 1.4 b ‘BHN 1054’ 7,816 ab 15,076 a 23,788 ab 46,680 ab 1.4 b ‘BHN 602’ Self-grafting 5,413 c 8,532 b 13,380 c 27,325 d 5.7 a ‘BHN 602’ Non-grafted 6,058 bc 10,496 b 18,593 bc 35,148 cd 5.6 a LSD (0.05) 2,165.1 3,559.2 5,303.9 9,722.5 0.9775 P>F 0.0112 0.0049 <0.0001 0.0002 <0.0001 Table 2. Fruit yield (kg.ha 1 ) and Root Gall Index (RGI) of tomato cultivar ‘BHN 602’ grafted onto root-knot nematode resistant rootstocks. The trial was conducted in Fall 2011 in Quincy, FL 1 Root Gall Index (RGI) is a1-10 scale indicating the percentage of roots with root galls (Zeck, 1971) on grafted and non-grafted plants in a field naturally infested with root-knot nematode ( M. incognita ). Inoculum levels were increased by planting squash variety Dixie into the field in the spring followed by disking into the soil 2.5 months after planting. Grafted plants were planted thereafter. Each entry consisted of 6 replications with 12 plants in each replication, and the experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design. 2 Column means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05 based on Least Significant Difference (LSD).

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Entry Fruit yield (kg.ha 1 ) Root Gall Index 1 (RGI) Medium Large Extra Large Total ‘BHN 998’ 6,113 a 10,341 a 30,244 a 46,699 a 0.1 b ‘BHN 1054’ 5,676 a 9,736 a 20,605 ab 36,018 ab 0.1 b ‘BHN 602’ Self-grafting 5,010 a 8,108 a 15,787 b 28,905 b 5.4 a ‘BHN 602’ Non-grafted 4,710 a 7,469 a 18,742 b 30,922 b 4.9 a LSD (0.05) ns ns 9,962.1 14,379 1.0064 P>F 0.5770 0.2184 0.0367 0.0451 <0.0001 Table 2. Fruit yield (kg.ha 1 ) and Root Gall Index (RGI) of tomato cultivar ‘BHN 602’ grafted onto root-knot nematode resistant rootstocks. The trial was conducted in Fall 2012 in Quincy, FL 1 Root Gall Index (RGI) is a1-10 scale indicating the percentage of roots with root galls (Zeck, 1971) on grafted and non-grafted plants in a field naturally infested with root-knot nematode ( M. incognita ). Inoculum levels were increased by planting squash variety Dixie into the field in the spring followed by disking into the soil 2.5 months after planting. Grafted plants were planted thereafter. Each entry consisted of 6 replications with 12 plants in each replication, and the experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design. 2 Column means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05 based on Least Significant Difference (LSD).

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‘RST-104-106-T’: 2011 Trial, FL

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‘BHN 998’ - 2011 Trial, FL

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‘BHN 1054’ - 2011 Trial, FL

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‘BHN 602’ - Non-grafted - 2011 Trial, FL

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GRAFT UNION ‘BHN 602’: RGI 7 ‘BHN 998’: RGI 1 AN “Accidental” DEMONSTRATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF GRAFTING!.

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