air compressors

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types of compressors and their working advantages and uses advanced techniques

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Presentation Transcript

Slide 1:

Air Compressors

Introduction:

Introduction A compressor is a machine capable of compressing and delivering the air at desires pressure. It is driven by a prime mover(Engine or a electric motor). A compressor takes in atmospheric air, compresses it and delivers the high pressure air to a receiver(storage vessel) from which it may be conveyed by a pipeline.

Slide 3:

What is compressed air? How it is compressed?

Applications of compressed air:

Applications of compressed air For operating pneumatic hand tools such as rivet sets, drills. painting and spraying. For driving mining tools. To supply the air blast in bessemer converter and blast furnace. To operate air brakes in automobiles , ram lifts and pneumatic conveyers. To supercharge IC Engines To inflate automobile tiers. To transmit power for operation of machines. To clean machines and work shop floor.

Slide 5:

Two Basic Compressor Types Types of Compressors

Slide 6:

Intake air filters Inter-stage coolers After coolers Air dryers Moisture drain traps Receivers Main Components in Compressed Air Systems Introduction

Working principle of reciprocating air compressor:

Working principle of reciprocating air compressor

Slide 8:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 9:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 10:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 11:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 12:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 13:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) V p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 14:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 15:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 16:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 17:

p V 1 2 3 4 1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes)

Slide 18:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 19:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 20:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 21:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 22:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 23:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 24:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 25:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 26:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 27:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 28:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 29:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 30:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 31:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 32:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 33:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 34:

1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytropic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 35:

Reciprocating Compressor: Ideal Indicator Diagram 1 – 2 polytropic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytrophic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes) p V 1 2 3 4

Slide 37:

1 – 2 polytrophic compression (2 delivery valve opens) 2 – 3 delivery at constant pressure and temperature (3 delivery valve closes) 3 – 4 polytrophic expansion (4 suction valve opens) 4 – 1 suction at constant pressure and temperature (1 suction valve closes)

Multistage Reciprocating Compressors:

Multistage Reciprocating Compressors The compression of air in single stage has many disadvantages and its use is limited where low delivery pressure is required. A multistage compression is more efficient and mostly employed for high pressures.

Line Diagram of a Reciprocating Compressor:

Line Diagram of a Reciprocating Compressor

Cross Section of a multi stage compressor:

Cross Section of a multi stage compressor

Advantages of multistage compression :

Advantages of multistage compression It provides a facility to install an inter cooler between the stages. Less power is required to deliver the same quantity of air at the same delivery pressure. Better lubrication due to lower temperature.

Rotary Compressors:

Rotary Compressors Rotary compressors are broadly classified into two types. Positive displacement compressor. Roots blower Vane blower Screw compressor 2. Non Positive Displacement(study flow) compressors Radial Centrifugal compressor Axial Flow Compressor

Roots Blower:

Roots Blower Its consists of two rotors each having two lobes and are enclosed in a casing. Two rotors are driven by a pair of equal spur gears. As the rotor rotates further air is trapped between the rotors and the casing. This air is transferred to the delivery side at constant pressure.

Screw Compressors:

Screw Compressors Rotary screw compressors are also positive displacement machines. These compressors employ two rotating interleaved helical screws which capture air in a pocket between them The space in which the air is trapped becomes smaller as it moves down the axis of the screw. Finally compressed air discharge from the opposite end of intake.

Screw compressor:

Screw compressor

Non positive (or) Dynamic compressors:

Non positive (or) Dynamic compressors Radial centrifugal compressor. Axial flow compressor.

Centrifugal Compressors:

Centrifugal Compressors

Slide 52:

Centrifugal compressor consist of a rotating impeller surrounded by a diffuser. The impeller and diffuser are concentric and are enclosed in a volute casing. The clearance between casing and diffuser gradually increases towards delivery side. The air enters through the eye of the impeller with high velocity. Air passes into the diffuser with high velocity where kinetic energy of air is converted into pressure energy. High pressure air is delivered.

Axial Flow Compressor:

Axial Flow Compressor The Axial Flow Compressor consist of a casing and a central drum which is driven by prime mover. The blades fitted to the casing are stationery where the moving blades are attached to drum. Fixed and moving blades are arranged alternately. The flow of air is essentially axial and pressure increase in both fixed and moving blades. Fixed blades directs air into moving blades and the kinetic energy of air is converted into the pressure energy. Finally the air at high pressure leads to delivery pipe from the casing.

Turbo Jet Engine:

Turbo Jet Engine

Mobile Compressors:

Mobile Compressors

Inter Cooler:

Inter Cooler

QUIRES ?:

QUIRES ? THANK U

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