intended learning outcome

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INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOME Dr Hanan Abbas Assistant professor of family medicine


2 Introduction “College standards are becoming diluted and there is a fuzziness about what faculty teach and what is expected from students.”

What is Curriculum Alignment? Consistency and Intentionality:

3 What is Curriculum Alignment? Consistency and Intentionality Harden, R.M. (2001). AMEE Guide No. 21. Curriculum mapping: a tool for transparent and authentic teaching and learning. Medical Teacher, 23 (2), 123-137. Hobson, E.H. (2005). Changing pedagogy. Presentation at SACS-COC Institute on Quality Enhancement and Accreditation, Orlando, FL, July 24-27, 2005.


4 Background A Programme defines study or learning required to achieve an award or qualification A Programme Specification is required by the QAA for each award or qualification and defines the threshold learning outcomes for the programme A Programme comprises a number of Modules each of which is separately assessed and earns credit when successfully completed Using the outcomes model each Module Description defines the intended (threshold?) learning outcomes, the syllabus coverage and the assessment methods and criteria for the module. Achievement of Module Learning Outcome should contribute to a student’s satisfaction of the programme learning outcomes

Learning Outcome-based Model:

5 Learning Outcome-based Model Traditionally an academic would first define the syllabus coverage, then develop how its taught and finally determine the method of assessing the student’s absorption of the material. The outcome-based model has three interconnected components: An explicit statement of learning intent (intended learning outcome) which focuses on what the student is expected to know and be able to do by the end of the module, expressed in a form that permits their achievement to be demonstrated and measured The processes and resources to enable the outcomes to be achieved and demonstrated (curriculum, teaching, learning methods and materials, assessment and support and guidance methods) The criteria for assessing whether the intended learning outcomes have been achieved and for differentiating the performance of students . They are dependent on the “level” at which the module is targeted

Hierarchy of the Cognitive Domain:

6 Hierarchy of the Cognitive Domain Evaluation Ability to make a judgement of the worth of something Synthesis Ability to combine separate elements into a whole Analysis Ability to break a problem into its constituent parts and establish the relationships between each one Application Ability to apply rephrased knowledge in a novel situation Manipulation Ability to rephrase knowledge Knowledge That which can be recalled

Why transform to a language of assessment?:

Why transform to a language of assessment? Specific learning outcomes lead to: More measurable outcomes Better assessment Higher quality feedback Improved courses and programs Improved student learning and achievement

PowerPoint Presentation:

Intended Learning Outcomes of the Lesson Intended Learning Outcomes of the Unit Intended Learning Outcomes of the Course Deliver Forward Design Backward Alignment Within Courses

Intended Learning Outcomes:

Intended Learning Outcomes Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation

Bloom & ILO/Assessment Verbs:

Bloom & ILO/Assessment Verbs Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Define; state; list; Explain; restate; sort; interpret Use; demonstrate; solve; practice Diagram; compare; discriminate; test Design; formulate; manage; create Assess; predict; defend; argue

Ideal Curricular Expression:

Ideal Curricular Expression Declared Curriculum Taught Curriculum Learned Curriculum

Common Curricula Reality:

Common Curricula Reality Declared Curriculum Taught Curriculum Learned Curriculum

Bloom’s Taxonomy:

Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation

Bloom’s Taxonomy:

Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Making decisions and supporting views; requires an understanding of values Combining information to form a unique product; requires creativity and originality Identifying components; determining arrangements, logic, and semantics Using information to solve problems; transforming abstract or theoretical ideas to practical situations; identifying connections and relationships Restating in your own words; paraphrasing, summarizing, translating Memorizing verbatim information; being able to remember, but not necessarily truly understanding the material

Learning Outcomes – Action Verbs:

Learning Outcomes – Action Verbs Knowledge Comprehension Application Define translate interpret Repeat restate apply Record discuss use List recognize demonstrate Recall explain practice Name identify illustrate Relate locate operate Tell report schedule Quote review calculate Label express complete Name summarize show describe solve interpret examine predict modify distinguish change differentiate relate classify

Learning Outcomes – Action Verbs:

Learning Outcomes – Action Verbs Analysis Synthesis Evaluation distinguish compose judge analyze plan appraise differentiate propose evaluate appraise design rate calculate formulate compare categorize arrange value experiment assemble revise test collect score compare construct select contract organize choose diagram manage assess relate prepare estimate solve combine measure examine modify decide separate substitute rank classify recommend arrange divide select

Learning Outcomes – Verbs that are difficult to measure:

Learning Outcomes – Verbs that are difficult to measure Know Familiarize Gain knowledge of Comprehend Study Cover Understand Be aware Learn Appreciate Become acquainted with Realize

4 Elements of a Learning Outcome:

4 Elements of a Learning Outcome Audience Who will be performing the behavior? Behavior What behavior will the learner be able to do? Condition Under what conditions do you want the learner to be able to do it? Degree How well must it be done?


Audience Identify who will be learning The learner The staff member The student The participant The trainee


Behavior Should be an action verb indicating what the learner will be able to do Should be something that can be seen or heard


Condition State the conditions you will impose when learners are demonstrating their mastery of the objective Under what conditions must the mastery of skill occur?

Degree (or criterion):

Degree (or criterion) A degree or criterion is the standard by which the performance is evaluated Accuracy Speed Standard Permissible errors Degree of excellence


Examples Know how to perform research The student will demonstrate the ability to perform research by successfully completing a research paper according to the criteria outlined by the instructor with 85% accuracy.

Educational Objectives:

Educational Objectives Statements that describe the expected accomplishments of graduates after graduation

PowerPoint Presentation:

What are learning outcomes? Learning outcomes are specific statements of what learners will be able to do (action verb) under what conditions (by the end of the course).

Learning Outcomes:

Learning Outcomes statements that describe what students are expected to know , think , and able to do by the time of graduation

Educational Objectives/ Learning Outcomes:

Educational Objectives/ Learning Outcomes Think of the “ideal” students or graduates What students know ? What students can do ? What students care about (think) ?

Educational Objectives:

Educational Objectives Broad Long-term What do we expect our graduates to accomplish in broader society as a result of program’s education? 3~5 per program

Objectives vs. Outcomes1:

Objectives vs. Outcomes 1 Program/course objectives are general goals that define what it means to be an effective program/course. They are general, indefinite, and not intended to be measured . They set the overall agenda for the program/course. Student learning outcomes are specific results the program/course seeks to achieve in order to attain the general goals defined in the objectives. Outcomes are definite and intended to be measured . They establish the particular means by which the agenda (as defined by objectives) is achieved. The achievement of outcomes is evidence that our students are learning.

Learning Outcomes:

Learning Outcomes Specific Measurable Achievable 3~8 per program

Learning Outcomes: Guideline:

Learning Outcomes: Guideline Aligned with mission statements Program level Stated from student perspective Intended learning outcomes (will) Specific Can be measured by multiple methods

Learning Outcomes:

Learning Outcomes Students will DO WHAT ( how)

“DO WHAT (How)” --- Bloom’s Taxonomy:

“DO WHAT (How)” --- Bloom’s Taxonomy Type Level Cognitive 6 Knowledge ~ Evaluation Affective 5 Receiving ~ Characterization by value Psychomotor/Skill 7 Perception ~ Origination

Characteristics of Well Stated Learning Outcomes2:

Characteristics of Well Stated Learning Outcomes 2 student-focused rather than professor focused focused on the learning resulting from an activity rather than on the activity itself focused on skills and abilities central to the discipline and based on professional standards of excellence general enough to capture important learning but clear and specific enough to be measurable focused on aspects of learning that will develop and endure but that can be assessed in some form now

How are learning outcomes written?:

How are learning outcomes written? Learning outcomes are written in language to demonstrate that students achieve higher order levels of thinking (Bloom’s taxonomy) Remember Define, list, describe, label, state Understand Classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase Apply Choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write. Analyze Appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test Evaluate Appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate Create Assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write

Vocabulary for Writing Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria - A:

36 Vocabulary for Writing Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria - A Verbs which require evidence of knowing: Be aware of, define, describe, extract, identify, know, label, list, match, measure, name, organise, outline, present, recall, recognise, recount, relate, repeat, select, state, underline, write. Verbs which require evidence of comprehension: Clarify, classify, compare, comprehend, contrast, convert, defend, describe, discuss, distinguish, estimate, exemplify, explain, express, extend, find, formulate, generalise, give examples of, identify, illustrate, indicate, infer, interpret, judge, justify, name, paraphrase, perform, predict, present, report, represent, restate, rewrite, select, summarise, translate, understand. Verbs which require evidence of knowledge / understanding: Apply, arrange, assess, change, choose, compute, construct, demonstrate, discover, draw (up), exemplify, explain how, find, give examples, illustrate, manipulate, modify, operate, order, practice, predict, prepare, produce, relate, select, show, solve, use, verify

Vocabulary for Writing Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria - B:

LTSN Workshop at University of Essex 26 th June 2003 37 Verbs which require evidence of analysis: analyse, break down, calculate, categorise, compare, conclude, contrast, criticise, devote, diagnose, differentiate, distinguish between, divide, elucidate, evaluate, examine, identify, illustrate how, infer, justify, outline, point out, precis , question, recognise, relate, resolve, select, separate, subdivide. Verbs which require evidence of synthesis: account for, alter, argue, build up, combine, compile, compose, conclude, create, derive, design, develop, devise, engender, enlarge, explain, formulate, generalise, generate, integrate, manage, modify, order, organise, plan, prepare, present, produce, propose, put together, rearrange, reconstruct, relate, reorganise, report, restate, revise, select, structure, suggest, summarise, synthesise, teach, tell, write. Verbs which require evidence of evaluation appraise, assess, choose, compare, conclude, contrast, criticise, defend, describe how, determine, discriminate, estimate, evaluate, judge, justify, measure, question, rate, value. Vocabulary for Writing Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria - B

Learning outcomes help students:

Learning outcomes help students Know what to expect Understand what the course requires Recognize what they will be able to do at the end

Learning outcomes help instructors :

Learning outcomes help instructors Organize the course Plan activities and assignments Plan assessments To achieve the desired outcomes.

Common Problems with Learning Outcomes:

Common Problems with Learning Outcomes Using vague terms, such as: Appreciate Become aware of Become familiar with Develop Know Learn Understand Describing action taken by someone other than the learner. “The program will...” or “The course will…”

A Comparison of Poorly and Well Stated Outcomes:

A Comparison of Poorly and Well Stated Outcomes Students will understand Erikson’s developmental stages. Students will be familiar with the major sociological perspectives and how they relate to their daily lives. Students will develop the skills necessary for conducting research in the natural sciences. Students will identify and summarize each of Erikson’s stages of development. Students will describe each of the major sociological perspectives and will illustrate how each perspective relates to events in their daily lives. Students will design, conduct, and analyze a research project using appropriate scientific theory and methodology

Learning Domains:

Learning Domains Three primary domains for classifying educational goals: Cognitive (knowledge) Affective (attitudes) Psychomotor (skills)

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Levels:

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Levels There are 6 categories, listed hierarchically from simplest to most complex Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation

Learning Outcomes by Bloom’s Taxonomy:

Learning Outcomes by Bloom’s Taxonomy Note: While this worksheet accommodates 7 learning outcomes, your specific course will most likely have more than this single worksheet can accommodate. The purpose of the worksheet is to provide a framework and not set parameters. 2.b.1. Outcome 1.c.1. Outcome 2.a Outcome 2. Introduce students to descriptive statistics 1.c Test for difference between means X 1.b.1. Outcome 1.b Apply to confidence intervals X 1.a.2. Describe three key distributions X 1.a.1. Define the three tenets of the Central Limit Theorem 1.a learn the conceptual foundations of inference 1. Introduce students to inferential statistics Eval-uation Syn-thesis Anal- ysis Appli-cation Com-prehen-sion Know-ledge Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Categories Student Learning Outcomes Unit/Lesson Learning Outcomes Course Goals/Objectives 2.b Outcome 2.a.1. Outcome 1.a.2. Combine to explain the relationship between the three distributions

PowerPoint Presentation:

Course-Level Learning Outcomes Teaching and Learning Activities Assessments of Student Learning Alignment within a Given Course

PowerPoint Presentation:

Teaching and Learning Activities Learning Goals Feedback and Assessment A model of course design (Adopted from Fink, 2003)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Intended Learning Outcomes of the Lesson Intended Learning Outcomes of the Unit Intended Learning Outcomes of the Course Intended Learning Outcomes of the Academic Program Intended Learning Outcomes of the Institution Deliver Forward Design Backward Alignment Between Course Outcomes and Institutional Outcomes

Common Methods of Measurement:

Common Methods of Measurement Pre-test and Post-test Comprehensive Final Selected questions from tests or quizzes Projects

PowerPoint Presentation:

Evaluation’s most important purpose is not to prove but to improve. (Platt)

Why ‘Outcomes-Based Teaching & Learning’?:

Why ‘Outcomes-Based Teaching & Learning’?

The ‘spirit’ of OBTL:

The ‘spirit’ of OBTL In teaching, what ultimately matters is not what is taught, but what is learned ; Therefore, teachers would do well to set their course objectives in terms of learning outcomes ;

The ‘logic’ of OBTL:

The ‘logic’ of OBTL ‘The logic is stunningly obvious: Say what you want students to be able to do, teach them to do it and then see if they can, in fact, do it.’

Educational activities:

Educational activities Group activities will typically take the form of: (i) reading and listening to reports on the latest current events; (ii) discussion of the reported event(s) in small groups, followed by a general discussion; (iii) Students bringing in news items of their own choice and reporting on them to the class, followed by a discussion (depending on the class’ interest). Other activities will include (i) individual students making a 5-minute oral presentation on a particular current event, and giving a personal commentary or analysis of it; (ii) group d ebates on controversial current issues; (iii) written essays on topics of current interest.

Think about…..:

Think about….. Can you think of a course in your program that heavily requires communication skill? How do you usually assess it? What kind of assignments or tasks students have? Essay, Presentation, Discussion, Report…………? What do you look for in assessment? organization, clarity, analysis, evaluation, grammar…..?

TO DO List: For your program:

TO DO List: For your program Discuss about and come up with Educational Objectives Write down the list of Educational Objectives that your program agreed on as finals Discuss about and come up with Learning Outcomes Write down the list of Learning Outcomes that your program agreed on as finals For each LO, use worksheets to create performance criteria Write the selected performance criteria on the Matrix “performance criteria” column

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