Motivation Theories

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By: ManjuMadhu (45 month(s) ago)

its good. and more precise.

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good to look at it. very informative

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Maslow’s Need Hierarchy : 

Self-Actualization Self-Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Maslow’s Need Hierarchy

Equity Theory : 

Equity Theory Social comparison process where motivation is due to perceptions of inequity Person (forms a ratio of inputs to outcomes and compares this ratio to a comparison other) Comparison Other (can be a co-worker, yourself in the past, an ideal) Inputs (e.g., experience, effort, skill, education) Outcomes (e.g., $, benefits, flexibility, autonomy, responsibility, promotion)

Equity Theory Example : 

Overpayment (receiving greater outcomes to inputs compared to another) Underpayment (receiving less outcomes to inputs compared to another) Person: 50/75 Other: 50/50 Person: 50/50 Other: 50/75 Result: Hourly work (salaried position : Greater input (e.g., effort) to reduce the perceive inequity regarding the quantity and quality of goods Piece rate: Greater input to produce better quality goods Equity Theory Example Result: Hourly work (salaried position): Less input (e.g., effort) to produce less number and poorer quality of goods Piece rate: Greater input to produce more quantity of goods but with less quality

Inequity Options : 

Behavioral Options to reduce perceived inequity: Change outcomes (e.g., ask for a raise) Get other to change their inputs to outcomes (e.g., slow down their rate of production 3) Find new work (e.g., quit the job, get a job transfer) Cognitive Options to reduce perceived inequity: Distort one’s own inputs or outcomes (e.g., “I’m not really working that hard,” “I have a lot of free time”) Distort the inputs or outcomes of others (e.g., he/she gets more money than me but they have to live in Buffalo) 3) Change the comparison other Inequity Options

Expectancy Theory : 

Expectancy Theory Rewards (Outcomes) Pay Work Conditions Benefits Autonomy Valences (attractiveness of outcomes rated on a scale from -10 to +10. A valence is given to each job outcome) Instrumentality (the perceived relationship between performance and attained outcomes from 0 to 1.0. One instrumentality for each valence) Expectancy (perceived relationship between effort and performance; 0 to 1.0. There is only one expectancy value) Motivation force = (V x I) + (V x I) + (V x I) + (V x I) X E 9 6 7 3 .75 .50 .30 .10

Reinforcement Theory : 

Reinforcement Theory Stimulus Response Reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement: Fixed Interval (FI) e.g., reinforcement by the hour or week Fixed Ratio (FR) e.g., reinforce based on piece rate on the number of goods produced, behaviors performed Variable Interval (VI) e.g., reinforcement based on random passage of time Variable Ratio (VR) e.g., random (variable) reinforcement based on the number of goods produced, behaviors performed (such as gambling)

Goal Setting : 

Goal Setting Goal Awareness Goal Acceptability Knowledge of behaviors needed to achieve goals Feedback It is best for goals to be: Challenging (difficult) Specific

Goal Setting Model : 

Moderating Factors Goal Commitment Feedback Ability Task Complexity Situational constraints High Performance Specific, High Goals High Expectancy Self-Efficacy Mediating Mechanisms Effort Persistence Direction Task Strategies (plans) Contingent & Non-Contingent Rewards Goal Setting Model Satisfaction (and anticipated satisfaction) Commitment to the Organization and its Goals

Job Characteristics Model : 

Core Job Dimensions Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Critical Psychological States Meaningfulness of work Autonomy Responsibility for work outcomes Feedback Knowledge of work results Employee Growth Need Strength Personal & Work Outcomes High intrinsic work motivation High quality of work performance High satisfaction with work Low absenteeism and turnover Job Characteristics Model