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Premium member Presentation Transcript Unlocking The Guyana Basin: Unlocking The Guyana Basin “Oil is first found in the minds of men.”-Wallace Pratt “The Key to Guyana’s Oil: An Understanding of the Formation of the Guyana Onshore and a correlation to Suriname’s Paleocene-Eocene Fairway Concept” by Nigel.S.Paltoo Copyright 2008As it is: As it is We usually find oil in new places with new ideas. When we go to a new area we can find oil with an old idea. Sometimes also we find oil in an old place with a new idea, but we seldom find much oil in an old place with an old idea (Parke Dickey, 1958, quoted in Dickey 2002, page 36). Guyana’s Onshore exploration in the past was primarily guesswork or reliance on skewed data: MOST-Microbial Organic Sampling Techniques: Area: Corantyne Berbice used by CGX Proven Technique but Areas identified as anomalous were as a result of human surface activity viz. burning of cane fields and flood fallowing also fertilizing of rice fields. END RESULT areas were identified outside of the Paleocene-Eocene Fairway in sand prone zones in the Paleo valleys of the larger rivers-inadequate clay in the sedimentary columns to form the basis for adequate seals. Drill results: clean sand, clay stringers. Proven: Good sediments for reservoir. Required: Adequate clay seals and Stratigraphic traps. WHAT NOW: Step 1: FIND THE CLAY ZONES Step 2: FIND THE POSSIBLE TRAPS Step 3: ENSURE MATCH TO DEPTH TO BASEMENT ZONES/ CONTOURS MATCHING TAMBAREDJO AND CALCUTTA OIL FIELDS IN SURINAME. Step 4: DRILL EXPLORATION WELLS. SO GO THROUGH THIS PRESENTATION SLOWLY BIT BY BIT.Introduction.: Introduction. This presentation seeks to explain the concepts successfully utilized in exploration within the onshore section of the Guyana Basin by the Suriname State Oil Exploration Co. Staatsolie in the Groningen-Tambaredjo-Calcutta areas in Saramacca,Suriname. It looks towards identifying a similar geographical and geological setting onshore Guyana that has been overlooked in past exploration. The author seeks to unravel the past to establish how exactly the onshore part of the Guyana Basin was formed and what the Demerara Coastal plain looked like prior to the Dutch polderization and prior to the Lamaha Conservancy and relate this to Suriname.. The basic assumptions are: 1.The Canje Source Rock is a world class producing source in thermal maturity. 2.Long range migration is at work within the basin or A-biotic oil as proposed by the Russian and Ukrainian theory that contradicts fossil petroleum formation is seeping from rifted basement. 3.All previous wells drilled onshore Guyana’s coast were wells of convenience either far from the same depth to basement contour as producing wells in Suriname or in sand prone valleys of the larger rivers. 4.The weakness exposed was the lack of adequate sealing clay in the sedimentary columns in areas drilled: No Seals then No Accumulation. 5.There is adequate sedimentary rock with excellent porosity for reservoirs. Therefore to be successful first find adequate clay then find a stratigraphic trap setting.Onshore Guyana.: Onshore Guyana. The coastal plain area consists of cultivated sugar cane and rice fields, savannah, some wetlands, numerous small waterways, with thick jungle vegetation along the major rivers. Swamp is present further inland, with accessibility an issue. Similar to onshore Suriname, this coastal plain area lies along the updip margin of the offshore Guyana-Suriname Basin. A group of 8 wells, 6 drilled by Guyana Shell in 1966-67, document the sedimentary section as Cretaceous to Pliocene in age with onshore depths to basement ranging from 500 to nearly 2000 meters. Regional dip is to the north and east, towards the basin center offshore. No discoveries have been made onshore Guyana to date. The above physical and geological environment is very similar to onshore Suriname to the east. Two commercial oil fields have been found to date onshore Suriname. The largest is Tambaredjo with ~ 900 MMBbls original oil in place (OOIP), with an estimated 167 MMBbls ultimately recoverable. Tambaredjo produces from unconsolidated Tertiary sandstones of the Paleocene Saramacca Fm. at 300-450 meter producing depth. These sandstones are interpreted as fluvio-deltaic floodplain deposits, very complex and highly variable in both vertical and lateral dimensions. These deposits are sealed locally by a ~5-20 meter thick Paleocene shale, formation waters being fresh above and salty below. The trap is interpreted as a combined structural - stratigraphic trap with N-S trending linear sand bodies associated with structural highs created by syn-sedimentary rejuvenated basement faults The Game ,The Players, The Prize…: The Game ,The Players, The Prize… It takes luck to find oil. Prospecting is like gin rummy. Luck enough will win but not skill alone. Best of all are luck and skill in proper proportion, but don’t ask what the proportion should be. In case of doubt, weigh mine with luck (Everette DeGolyer, quoted in Knowles 1978, page 300). It is the genius of a people that determines how much oil shall be reduced to possession; the presence of oil in the earth is not enough. Gold is where you find it, according to an old adage, but judging from the record of our experience, oil must be sought first of all in our minds (Wallace Pratt, quoted in Pratt 1943, page 1). We usually find oil in new places with new ideas. When we go to a new area we can find oil with an old idea. Sometimes also we find oil in an old place with a new idea, but we seldom find much oil in an old place with an old idea (Parke Dickey, 1958, quoted in Dickey 2002, page 36). My own view is that it’s easy to find oil. It’s hell to make money (Marlan Downey, 1991, quoted in Steinmetz 1992, back cover). The quotes from DeGolyer, Pratt, Dickey, and Downey reveal the preoccupations with risk, failure, innovation, and fortune that have always characterized exploration. Taken from different points in time, these observations also demonstrate how exploration evolved from a crapshoot informed by hunches and rewarded largely by luck, to a sophisticated endeavor requiring vision, invention, and modern science in finding commercial prospects. With modern industry and indeed whole economies dependent on it, oil is still the greatest prize and exploration still the greatest game. IS GUYANA READY TO PLAY??First the basic requirements: First the basic requirements 1.A mature source rock –we have the Cenomanian aged Canje shales or possible evidence of faults from below basement feeding intervals with “a-biotic oil”. 2.Sediments-we have the Guyana coastal plain. 3.Proof of oil generation-Suriname’s Tambaredjo and Calcutta oil fields with in excess of 1 Billion Barrels in proven deposits. Now it is up to the explorer to find the deposits in the reservoirs …commercial quantity and sealed in The Basin.: The Basin. NB: THE ONLY OIL SHOWS ON GUYANA COAST ARE AT SHELTER BELT AND SKELDON.YPF Map.: YPF Map.Understanding the Information: Understanding the InformationCanje Source Kitchen.: Canje Source Kitchen.Cross Sectioned.: Cross Sectioned.Make a Comparison:: Make a Comparison: First how did Suriname find oil?? Sheer luck …drilling for water and found oil in as schoolyard Calcutta in the Saramacca district. 2. Historical overview of Crude Oil Activities in Suriname Traces of Petroleum-like substances at several places along the coastal plain of Suriname have been reported since the beginning of this century. 1928 First analysis that confirmed the presence of hydrocarbons were carried out on samples from a 30ft shallow well, drilled in the District of Nickerie. 1965 The Geological and Mining Service (GMD) encountered heavy oil in the Miocene interval at a depth of 450 ft, while drilling for potable water on a schoolyard in Calcutta in the District of Saramacca. Encouraged by this find, GMD carried out a drilling program in the vicinity areas of the discovery well (1966). 1968 Oil was encountered at a depth of approximately 850 ft. in the Paleocene interval in the village of Tambaredjo. 1970 Execution of Hydrocarbon exploration campaign in the Coastal plain of Suriname 1980 The State Oil Company Suriname (Staatsolie) established on December 13th by the Government of Suriname. Suriname cont’d…: Suriname cont’d… 1982 Production activities started with 5 test wells with average daily production of 200 BOPD 1996 Establishment of the Staatsolie Refinery at Tout Lui Faut (TLF) 2003 Discovery made in the neighboring Calcutta block where full-scale production development activities will be completed in 2006 2004 Staatsolie entered exploration activities offshore by acquiring 3,500 km 2-D seismic data, signed two Production Sharing Contracts; one with the Spanish oil company Repsol YPF for offshore block 30 and the other with the Danish oil company Maersk Oil. Production test program carried out on the first well CC-16 of the Calcutta field 2005 Production test program continued on additional 4 wells in the Calcutta field. Third offshore contract signed with Occidental Petroleum Company. 2006 Official declaration of the Calcutta (second onshore) oilfield. An average daily production of 12,500 BOPD of the Tambaredjo and Calcutta field realized as end of February 2006. Suriname Onshore: Suriname Onshore The sediments in the Suriname part of the Guyana basin are deposited in a passively trailing margin style environment with minor tectonic activities and are grouped in the Corantijn Group. The Group consists of a monocline northern dipping section of predominantly classic sediments, deposited under fluvial to marine conditions. Onshore, oil is encountered at several stratigraphic levels in the Tertiary sediments. In the Tambaredjo area, the Paleocene to Eocene sediments, called the Saramacca Formation, is the oil-bearing formation. The Formation is characterized by a regular alternation of relatively thick (up to 50 m) sands (more or less kaolinitic) with kaolinitic clays. In the Tambaredjo area the Formation is 120 – 150m thick. Oil production in the Tambaredjo field is from the T-unit, a Paleocene member of the Saramacca Formation. The Tambaredjo field is located on a NE-SW trending structural high of the Precambrian basement, possibly an extension of the so-called Bakhuys horst. Along the coastal plain the highest part of the Saramacca Formation is situated on this structure (main reason for the trapping of the oil in the Tambaredjo area). All Formations gently dip towards the Atlantic Ocean. The contours of the Top-Cretaceous unconformity show an undulating surface with a regional dip of about 1 degree to the North. Tambaredjo Oilfield: Tambaredjo Oilfield The Tambaredjo Field The Tambaredjo field is located in a marshy area in the coastal plain of Suriname, in the district of Saramacca about 45 km West of Paramaribo. The crude production is from the T-unit, a Paleocene member of the Saramacca Formation. The recoverable reserves of this field are proved at about 107 MMSTB as end of December 2005. The oil produced is heavy crude (15.6 degree API) of intermediate naphtenic origin with low sulfur and low metal contents. The reservoir was discovered in 1968 by the GMD (Geologische Mijnbouwkundige Dienst), near the village of Tambaredjo, by wildcat well C9 (TA-4) at a depth of 850 feet. Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname N.V: Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname N.V In 2003, the national oil company of Suriname Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname N.V. explored 200 km of coastal region between Corentyne and the Tambaredjo River. Staatsolie was established by the Government in 1980 as a limited-liability fully Government-owned company. The company conducted exploration, marketing, production, and refining of petroleum; it also operated an oil refinery with a capacity of 7,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) that produced asphalt-bitumen, diesel, fuel oil, and heavy-vacuum gas-oil. The Corentyne River is part of the area involved in an inland territory dispute between Guyana and Suriname. Onshore northern Suriname, approximately 185 Mbbl of oil has been discovered so far; of that total, 170 Mbbl was located in the Tambaredjo oilfield, District of Saramacca, and the remaining 15 Mbbl was located in the Calcutta oilfield west of Tambaredjo. In 2003, the Tambaredjo oilfield produced approximately 12,300 bbl/d and had an estimated reserve density of 1.2 million barrels per square kilometer. In 2004, Staatsolie planned to carry out a detailed study at the Calcutta oilfield to determine its exact size, thickness, and number of oil columnsCalcutta Oilfield 2003: Calcutta Oilfield 2003 Major exploration projects in 2003 carried out by Staatsolie, such as the second phase of geochemical survey in the Nickerie blocks that confirmed previously identified anomalies, achieved successful results. In addition, exploration and appraisal drilling in Calcutta and Tambaredjo-West, respectively, identified several oil reservoirs in the Eocene Upper Saramacca Formation; the oil reserves were estimated to be 8 Mbbl (Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname N.V., 2003a, p. 8-9).Calcutta Oilfield 2006-Today: Calcutta Oilfield 2006-Today Staatsolie, Suriname's state oil company, has launched production at a second onshore oil field in Suriname, reports Caribbean Net News (March 29, 2006). Officials estimate that the new Calcutta production field holds 23 million barrels of crude oil. Field chief Patrick Brunings said peak production of 5,000 barrels a day will occur over a period of 20 years. Already 12 wells have been drilled; this is expected to increase to 160 over the next two years. The field may hold more crude oil than the original estimate of 23 million barrels. Trinidad: Fazal Hosein Geologist Comments: Trinidad: Fazal Hosein Geologist Comments He noted that the Guyana Coastal Onshore Province is closest to the analog oil field of Suriname where the Tambaredjo and Calcutta oil fields are being developed to exploit more than one billion barrels of oil. Hosein added, “ The structural and stratigraphic setting in the Guyana Coastal Onshore Province is very similar to that of the Suriname oil fields. Stratigraphic traps are important and necessary for entrapment of oil migrating up-dip from the offshore source kitchen, “If the same depositional environments and facies relationship are present in the Guyana area, then there are excellent opportunities for finding hydrocarbons in two prospective blocks over a large area which could have significant oil reserves,” he said. Fazal Hosein, Chief Executive Officer of International Geological Services Limited Former Chief Geologist of Petrotrin-Trinmar In Interview by Linda Hutchinson-Jafar Thursday, January 4 2007 for Newsday TT THE KEY WORDS ARE “SAME” and “EXCELLENT”Analysis: Analysis Aeromagnetic map of Suriname.Big Picture: Big Picture Aeromagnetic Map of both Guyana and Suriname.Oil exploration in Berbice was in sand prone areas hence lack of sealing.: Oil exploration in Berbice was in sand prone areas hence lack of sealing.Part IIThe Suriname WayThe Paleocene –Eocene Fairway Concept.: Part II The Suriname Way The Paleocene –Eocene Fairway Concept. Why is Suriname so advanced in exploration?: Why is Suriname so advanced in exploration? Because they have vision and have conceptualized the game and played accordingly.. By using the Paleocene-Eocene Fairway concept Staatsolie has discovered Suriname’s second oilfield-Calcutta. We can observe and learn and since we are hardly ever original, we can at least copy a bit… Is that so bad ?The Suriname Way: The Suriname Way The Suriname-Guyana basin holds high promise of hydrocarbons. This passive margin basin has a thick, predominantly clastic sedimentary cover and contains a first-class source rock, the Cenomanian-Turonian Canje Formation. The expectations for the near future are high, with major seismic programmes being executed and many exploration wells being spudded or planned. Yet, despite decades of exploration activity in the area, the only hydrocarbon reserves to be found so far are the onshore Calcutta and Tambaredjo oil fields in Suriname (Fig. 1). Combined, the proven reserves of these fields exceed more than one billion barrels of oil. The oil in these fields is trapped stratigraphically in coastal reservoir sands at relatively shallow depths, but oil exploration in the onshore area is more complicated than it seems. While oil shows are quite common in wildcats, finding and developing new fields is more of a challenge. Recently, the state-owned Staatsolie company developed a play concept for the onshore called the “Paleocene-Eocene Fairway”.The Concept: The Concept In brief, the concept predicts that hydrocarbon accumulations are restricted to those areas where clay is sufficiently represented in the sedimentary column. Typically, these clays are found within tidal flat settings, away from major river systems. The play concept assumes that the palaeo-valleys of the major river systems from the Paleocene and Eocene ran from South to North and were situated at the same locations as the present day large rivers. This is supported by the sandy nature and lack of seal in wells drilled near the Nickerie and Corantijn rivers. In between these rivers, mud flats with tidal inlet complexes are expected. These mud flats stretch out in a narrow belt parallel to the palaeo coastline .When studied in detail, the belt can be subdivided in separate patches, each of which is represented by an intricate network of sand and clays. Suriname’s Paleocene-Eocene Fairway Concept…: Suriname’s Paleocene-Eocene Fairway Concept…More Suriname stuff that is relevant: More Suriname stuff that is relevant Notice the Lavender colored block offshore Guyana –Medium density-because the oil is further onshore but at slightly greater depth than Suriname.More Suriname data: More Suriname dataSuriname’s Cutting edge: Suriname’s Cutting edgeSatellite Image: Satellite Image Suriname CoastSuriname Mud Flat: Suriname Mud Flat Dr. S .Naipaul looking at Erosion on Suriname CoastMangroves and Clay-Suriname: Mangroves and Clay-SurinameWhat does the Saramacca area in Suriname look like?: What does the Saramacca area in Suriname look like? The Tambaredjo field is located in a marshy (swampy) area on the Suriname coastal plain 45 km west of Paramaribo. The crude production is from the T-Unit ,a Paleocene member of the Saramacca Formation. The depositional environment ranges from fluvial to estuarine.In Suriname 1000-1500 ft below the surface: In Suriname 1000-1500 ft below the surface Under a thin layer of bauxite/kaolinitic clay lies the oil So where in Guyana can you find similar conditions? A surface that is a marshy clayey environment.The Challenge:: The Challenge: We have established a common source rock and oil in Suriname …what now? Find the Stratigraphic trap in Guyana in a Clay rich setting along equivalent depth to basement contours as in Suriname.Understanding how the Coast was formed.: Understanding how the Coast was formed.Aeromagnetic map shows the formations.: Aeromagnetic map shows the formations.Key Point: 1000 ft/1500 ft Depth to Basement Contours: Key Point: 1000 ft/1500 ft Depth to Basement Contours 1000 ft Contour NW – SE Fault Line __ __ __ __ __ __ NE– SW Dike __________________ * . Note the 1500 ft contour jutting into the 1000 ft band along the fault line . Craig to Den Heuvel East Bank Demerara.Slide42: FAULT LINE,TRIASSIC DYKE AND 1500 FTDEPTH TO BASEMENT CONTOUR KEYED IN EAST BANK DEMERARAEnlarged: EnlargedCorrelating the stratigraphic,geologic and clay sealing aspects and matching to Suriname.: Correlating the stratigraphic,geologic and clay sealing aspects and matching to Suriname. Part III NOTE WELL: The first law of Geography according to Waldo Tobler is “Everything is related to everything else but near things are more related than distant things” [ Tobler 1970,pg 236 ]Apply the Paleocene-Eocene Fairway concepts to Guyana : Apply the Paleocene-Eocene Fairway concepts to Guyana Look at the river sinuosity and patterns for the Saramacca and Coppename in Suriname…look for equivalents in Guyana. Match the aeromagnetic depth to basement contours. Look for fault lines and Triassic dikes. Identify the paleo-valleys of Guyana’s large rivers viz.Essequibo,Berbice and Corantyne. Identify the smaller channels Demerara,Mahaica,Mahaicony and Abary and identify the mud flats to find the areas with the best clay sealing prospectivity. Then and only then match the stratigraphic traps in areas with good sealing. Also look at the vegetation in Saramacca,Suriname and match to Guyana.Key wells: Key wells Both the Skeldon and Shelter belt oil shows are indicative that oil has migrated towards the onshore Guyana and at the 1000-1500 ft above basement zone is the key depth contour. The challenge is to find the trap so therefore look along the 1000-1500 ft contours !History: Did our shoreline change?: History: Did our shoreline change? Spruit ? Guyana coastline in the 1750’sAnother map showing Guyana’s former coast.: Another map showing Guyana’s former coast.Transition: End of the Demerara Clay Deposits and Beginning of the Essequibo Sandy Deposits.: Transition: End of the Demerara Clay Deposits and Beginning of the Essequibo Sandy Deposits. CLAY TO SAND >>>> The sand prone Essequibo Coast - Less Clay -Poor Sealing.The Tuschen Clay-Demerara Shoreline: The Tuschen Clay-Demerara Shoreline EXTENSIVE MUDFLAT >> VAST MUDFLAT AT TUSCHEN WEST DEMERARA. CRAIG BEND>>Mudflats off of Suriname are Extensive.: Mudflats off of Suriname are Extensive. Matches the mudflats on the East and West Coast of Demerara.Demerara Delta: Demerara Delta DEMERARA DELTA – PREDOMINANTLY CLAYEssequibo, Corantyne and Berbice: Sand Prone Paleo-Valleys: Essequibo, Corantyne and Berbice: Sand Prone Paleo-ValleysThe Spruit Demerara Mud flat got washed away in the late 1700’s: The Spruit Demerara Mud flat got washed away in the late 1700’s The extended tip of Demerara would have been accretionery clay built up after the rivers were formed. This demonstrates the amount of clay deposited in Demerara. .Flood Data shows low lying clay zones.: Flood Data shows low lying clay zones. Are we sure it’s all relevant?: Are we sure it’s all relevant?Clay vs Sand.: Clay vs Sand. East Bank Demerara: Tuschen Clay compared to Sand and Loam from HighlandsIdentify the depth to basement zone of the Suriname Paleocene-Eocene Fairway:: Identify the depth to basement zone of the Suriname Paleocene-Eocene Fairway: Along the 1000 ft contour in Suriname in clay prone areas the Paleocene Eocene Fairway is considered highly prospective for oil. In Guyana the area identified as the clayey zone: Craig –Land of Canaan basement is depressed due to the collapse of the basement on the EBD / upliftment starting on the WBD resulting in the 1000 ft contour faulting into the 1500 ft zone….thicker sediment wedge therefore a larger reservoir. 1000 ft Contour >Identify a clay rich area in Guyana along the 1000-1500 ft contour with stratigraphic trap settings.: Identify a clay rich area in Guyana along the 1000-1500 ft contour with stratigraphic trap settings. 1000 ft Contour NW – SE Fault Line __ __ __ __ __ __ NE– SW Dike __________________ * . Note the 1500 ft contour jutting into the 1000 ft band along the fault line . Craig to Den Heuvel East Bank Demerara. In Craig the 1500 ft Contour juts into the 1000ft trend line. 1500 ft Contour Extrapolation.: Extrapolation.Extension of the contours.: Extension of the contours. .Clays overlying the East Bank Demerara: Clays overlying the East Bank Demerara Rich Clay Deposits: Rich Clay Deposits The Sealing Aspect. KEY: 39:Tuschen Clay. 36:Brickery Clay. 21/22: Mara Clay. Clay Comparison:: Clay Comparison: EAST BANK DEMERARA TAMBAREDJO-SURINAMEGeneralized Stratigraphic: Generalized StratigraphicIn the Craig –Land Of Canaan area the Intermediate Clay formation would be more extensive and less sand prone.: In the Craig –Land Of Canaan area the Intermediate Clay formation would be more extensive and less sand prone. Diagram of the Guyana Coastal Aquifer Satellite Image of Target area.: Satellite Image of Target area.Slide68: NOTE THE GEOGRAPHIC SIMILIARITIES ALL AT THE SAME DEPTH TO BASEMENT ZONE. <<< POSSIBLE ANCIENT CREEK CONVERTED TO EAST DEMERARA CANAL.CONFIRMED BY DEPTH TO BASEMENT. DRAINAGE OF EXTENSIVE LAGOON SURINAMEComparison Continued:: Comparison Continued: The comparison is now complete with the true setting of the East Bank Demerara being revealed: Two Creeks/Rivers are held back from flowing west by the conservancy dam.Contours,Angles,Depths,Faults and Dykes.: Contours,Angles,Depths,Faults and Dykes. Bends in the Coppename and Saramacca Rivers. Bend in the Demerara River at CraigReconstruction: ReconstructionNot Simply Bends in Rivers and Perpendicular Tributaries:: Not Simply Bends in Rivers and Perpendicular Tributaries: Both zones are away from the sand prone paleo valleys of the larger rivers. Both zones are in former/current fluvial/lagoonal settings (swamp) with significant clay in the sedimentary column. Both zones are on the same depth to basement contours –between 1000-1500 feet. Both zones are E-NE to mountain ranges Mazaruni/Pakaraimas in Guyana and Bakhuis/Wilhelmina in Suriname. Extensions : Extensions See the Guyana Bauxite deposits follow a contour: See the Guyana Bauxite deposits follow a contour Likewise the Clay deposits and the Sand deposits… The clay binding with the kaolinitic sands creates better seals Note the overlap of the Clay and Bauxite belt on the Demerara River >>>>>>The Equivalent of the Saramacca.: The Equivalent of the Saramacca. 1000 ft 1500 ft The Inland Mangroves indicate the clayey zones away from the sand prone paleo-valleys. The aeromagnetic map pinpoints the stratigraphic trap settings. FAULTING OF BASEMENT ROCK SOUTH WESTERN UPLIFT OF 450-500 FT TRIASSIC DYKES. MAGNETIC HIGHS FLANKED BY LOWS DEPTH TO BASEMENT CONTOURS ^ ^Key Pieces.: Key Pieces. The 1000 ft Depth contour (well control/Magnetic estimate) is key since south or inland of this depth to basement is the Tambaredjo and Calcutta oilfields in Suriname. Guyana’s oil is backed up against this level at a fault line in Demerara which caused when the basement uplifted on the West Bank Demerara relative to the East Bank Demerara it is a difference of 450-600 feet. Leading into this area is a huge Triassic Dike running NE to SW occurring during the Gondwanaland separation of the Triassic. Positioned.: Positioned. This fault shift in the basement on the West Bank and across onto the East Bank Demerara runs NW to SE starting at Wales/Craig and going diagonally across towards the SE at about 45°. As a result a segment of the basement that should have been at a depth of 1000 feet is at 1500-2000 feet depth to the Magnetic structural profile. Over this segment the thickness of sediments is in excess of 500 meters ….even better than Suriname.SAR IMAGE: SAR IMAGEThe Missing Links: The Missing Links 1.River Bend at Craig EBD. 2.The Lost Lamaha River. . .Landsat-SAR Image of Area.: Landsat-SAR Image of Area. How does it compare to the Tambaredjo Swamp? Look to the bottom left and note the lost Lamaha River. The Beginning of The Guyana Fairway.: The Beginning of The Guyana Fairway. Backed up to the 1500 ft depth to basement contour line North East of the East Bank Demerara fault line is the perfect setting for oil accumulation . Given the clays that predominate the area and the fact that the area is not as sand prone as the Paleo valleys of the Berbice and Corantyne Rivers the sealing aspect should be covered.Guyana’s Paleocene Eocene Fairway: Guyana’s Paleocene Eocene Fairway Guyana’s fairway “sweet spots” would be in the clay rich zones following the 900-1500 ft depth to basement contours moving from Craig South Easterly to Fern Village on the West Bank Berbice and just overlapping onto the East Bank Berbice. In Craig the 1500 ft Contour juts into the 1000ft trend line. The area that was overlooked.: The area that was overlooked. Oil shows at Skeldon and at Shelter Belt Georgetown are indicative of the Migration pathway and movement towards the 1500-1000 ft depth above basement. Those two points represent the two tips within Guyana of that depth. Follow the contour line at Skeldon west to the Craig EBD fault and drill there. The contour continues to the Shelter Belt where it fades. VERY IMPORTANT TO NOTE THE ZONE ABOVE WAS NEVER DRILLED.CONCLUSIVE OR CIRCUMSTANTIAL: CONCLUSIVE OR CIRCUMSTANTIALSlide90: Direct CorrelationClays of Tambaredjo:: Clays of Tambaredjo:Clays of Craig –Good Success: Clays of Craig –Good SuccessThe Last of The Moriche: The Last of The Moriche Moriche Palm clump: Craig –New Hope-Demerara GPS: 21N:0374945 UTM: 0738150 Moriche Palm clump: Tambaredjo-Suriname450 Years Ago : 450 Years Ago The Natives and The Moriche Palm ruled the Mangrove coasts. Suriname’s Coat of ArmsFlora Audit-100 % match: Flora Audit-100 % match All the flora in Saramacca correlate to Craig-New Hope East Bank Demerara. Parrot Tongue Moco-Moco Manicole Black sage Sweet Sage Carrion Crow bush Mangroves Moriche Ferns Checklist: Checklist Good world class source rock-YES –The Cenomanian Canje Source Rock In the event oil is A-Biotic in origin there is adequate faulting of the basement in the key areas. Proof of Oil generation-YES-Tambaredjo and Calcutta fields in Suriname. Do we have adequate sediments onshore Guyana in similar settings-YES along the lower east bank of the Demerara river in swamp/lagoon/estuarine setting JUST LIKE Tambaredjo and Calcutta. Depth to basement-1000- 1500 ft plus. Sealing Clays-YES –Proof-ancient mudflats that were converted to agricultural land away from the sand prone paleo-valleys of the larger rivers (Essequibo,Berbice,Corantyne). Faults and Triassic dikes? –YES. Predictions: OIL 23-29 API or lighter. 450 Million barrels ++ Depth: 945 ft.-1450 ft. Similar in size to Tambaredjo and Calcutta Oilfields in size. Onshore exploration has failed in the past since wells were drilled too close to the shore along contours unrelated to the Paleocene –Eocene Fairway in sand prone areas. In the areas drilled such as Yakusari BBP, Hermitage etc.irrespective of the source rock,stratigraphic traps and adequate thickness and porosity of reservoirs there were no requisite seals due to insufficient clay in the sedimentary column. Complete Paleocene-Eocene Fairway.: Complete Paleocene-Eocene Fairway. RED LINES REPRESENT THE 1000-1500 FT DEPTH TO BASEMENT CONTOURS BLUE BLOCKS : PROSPECTIVE ZONES IN GUYANA ON LEFT AND CALCUTTA/TAMBAREDJO SURINAME OILFIELDS ON RIGHT Discussion.: Discussion. At Craig, East Bank Demerara there is a fault line running South East at 45 degrees towards Land of Canaan. This fault caused by up-lift of the basement rock on the West Bank Demerara has resulted in the depth to basement in Craig area being 1600 to 2000 ft as compared to the 1000-1200 ft on the West Bank. This setting is in a clay rich zone and it is a stratigraphic trap for hydrocarbons migrating or if a-biotic in origin seeping from below the basement. The setting is identical to the Saramacca region in Suriname where the Calcutta oilfield is located adjacent to the Tambaredjo oilfield. The Saramacca area subducted the Coppename similar to the East and West bank Demerara The crystalline metamorphic basement of the region could be according to Russian-Ukrainian theory a huge seal over a-biotic oil accumulations that was ruptured in the Apoterie and is being exploited in Bolivia and Tambaredjo due to upward migration through faults. The Guyana Government should establish an oil exploration corporation and explore the area in question with urgency since it requires relatively shallow wells 1500-2000 feet in depth. Guyana is unable to drill super deep wells through basement so find a suitable deep fault area with adequate sealing and drill there and start extracting a-biotic petroleum. Best Location to start : GPS 21N 369945 UTM 739450 DRY LOCATION or SWAMPY GPS 21 N 370651 UTM 739990 Guyana should not be held at ransom for its own oil wealth by data manipulators who misinterpret skewed microbial sampling data and contacts within turbidites and only locate sand…Guyana should be brave …set up an independent onshore exploration corporation with professional geologists review the data presented here and then drill. Area so far not fully licensed.: Area so far not fully licensed. Area to the South-West of Sadhna Petroleum should be reserved for exploration by the State of Guyana. Exploration should be done with urgency.1000-1500 ft boreholes /wells are relatively low cost.* * * *: * * * * Best Location to start : GPS 21N 369945 UTM 739450 DRY LOCATION or GPS 21 N 370651 UTM 739990 SWAMP The First Law Of Geography: The First Law Of Geography The first law of geography according to Waldo Tobler is "Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things." [Tobler, 1970, p.236] This is widely known as TFL…Tobler’s First Law.Note Jurassic Source Rock: Note Jurassic Source RockMatch Across To Guyana: Match Across To GuyanaConnect White Dots: Connect White DotsSource Rock and Migration Pathway: Source Rock and Migration PathwayCoincidence vs. Theory: Coincidence vs. Theory Is it a coincidence that the two rivers compared have similar bends? No. Is it a coincidence that the backgrounds for these Power Point slides in Windows Vista and XP have a matching river/stream bend template which I have used? Yes. It is a coincidence that there is a Caledonia district in Suriname similarly located like the Craig-Caledonia NDC in Demerara It is a coincidence that oil was first discovered in a schoolyard in Calcutta and that the Craig Primary school is on the main magnetic low in the main prospective zone. It was no coincidence that the Tambaredjo field was nearby to the first discovery likewise Guyana’s first field would be relatively nearby on the same contours within a clay rich zone. That’s Tobler’s First Law. A theory is a conceptual framework that explains existing observations and predicts new ones and such is the Suriname Paleocene-Eocene Fairway concept and it is very much applicable to Guyana. The Suriname Paleocene-Eocene Fairway Concept is a theory relative to Guyana and should be tested as outlined with urgency. This theory has been evaluated and proven by Staatsolie and is superior to Microbe sampling that gave false positives resulting in the Yakusari/Hermitage/Albion Dry holes and The Turbidite shell games being played out in the high cost/high risk offshore. Guyana needs OIL since 1992.Finally.: Finally. Where Oil is first found, in the final analysis, is in the minds of men. The undiscovered oil field exists only as an idea in the mind of some oil finder. When no one any longer believes that more oil is left to be found, no more oil fields will be discovered, but so long as a single oil finder remains with a mental vision of a new field to cherish, along with freedom and incentive to explore, just so long new oil fields may continue to be discovered. - Wallace Pratt - One indispensable attribute of the oil finder is vision. If it is in the mind of the geologist or oil finder that new fields first take form, then discovery must wait on our imagination. - Wallace Pratt - There are many geological tools rusting away in our kit for want of use. The need is for creative geology as compared with what may be called routine geology. - A. I. Levorsen - We usually find oil in an old place with a new idea, but we seldom find much oil in an old place with an old idea. Several times in the past we have thought we were running out of oil, whereas actually we were only running out of ideas. - Parke Dicky - Creativity occurs because we overcome obstacles -- because we dare. - Jack Parker - It is my firm belief that given all these advantages in science and technology, the greatest single factor left in the exploration equation is creative thinking. The best science in the world can not develop a prospect. Only the geologist through creative assembly of all the disparate bits of scientific information available to him or her, can accomplish this. New ideas in older provinces are not generated by data manipulators. They are generated by creative thinking. - Ted Bear –About the Author.: About the Author. Nigel.S.Paltoo BSSc. is an Auditor by profession and amateur Geologist with eight years experience in “exploration” and research of the Guyana Basin. Contact: email@example.com or Cell: 592-615-1111 This presentation represents eight years of so far unrewarded/unpaid research over two continents. There is no better theory for Guyana’s oil deposits since sadly the Guyana Offshore Basin is not the Campos Basin refer to West Tapir well the recently drilled dry hole offshore Suriname (June 2008)and CGX’s Horseshoe West to predict the results of the Guyana Offshore Basin. The offshore does not have the faulting and folding ok .Its a passive margin area so the oil migrated (TIME and DISTANCE) to the onshore as is proven in Suriname. In God We Trust. Assess the information and drill to 1600 feet. Do not license this area UNLESS TERMS ARE VERY FAVORABLE TO THE PEOPLE OF GUYANA. Best Location to start : GPS 21N 369945 UTM 739450 DRY LOCATION or SWAMPY GPS 21 N 370651 UTM 739990 Just respect the environment and remember to acknowledge and reward my efforts accordingly. This research is dedicated to my children: Karen,Jason,Stephen and Elijah. Best Wishes: Nigel.S.Paltoo (Chewy) Other Resource Slides: Other Resource Slides “Knowledge of the universe bestows awesome power. To understand the secrets of atoms and galaxies is to become like gods.” ~W.J. Kaufmann III, Galaxies and Quasars Satellite Image: Satellite ImageA River Runs Through it: A River Runs Through it Guyana-Guiana- Guyana (pronounced /ɡaɪˈænə/ or /ɡiːˈɑːnə/), officially named the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and previously known as British Guiana, is the only nation state of the Commonwealth of Nations on the mainland of South America. Guyana lies north of the equator, in the tropics, and is located on the Atlantic Ocean. Bordered to the east by Suriname, to the south and southwest by Brazil and to the west by Venezuela. Guyana –Amerindian word meaning Land of Many Waters. “Eventually, all things merge into one, and a river runs through it. The river was cut by the world's great flood and runs over rocks from the basement of time. On some of those rocks are timeless raindrops. Under the rocks are the words, and some of the words are theirs. I am haunted by waters.” From the novelette by Norman McLean “A River Runs Through It.”Trace the Clay Deposits that extend furthest onshore.The vegetation is determined by soil types.: Trace the Clay Deposits that extend furthest onshore. The vegetation is determined by soil types. See the vegetation following a contour? Left: Guyana and Suriname. the Guyana Vegetation map is inaccurate, but follow the contour across east to Fr. Guiana see how it fades away .The purple fringes are the mangroves.Compare apples with apples.: Compare apples with apples.Why oil has not been found in Guyana?: Why oil has not been found in Guyana? At least until now…… Another stream, smelling less of sulphur but more of oil, burst from under the rocks a little further on, and it is near here that attempts have been made in the past to tap the petroleum reservoir which probably exists somewhere beneath the ground. Some day a happy man may hit the right spot, and then his fortune is made; but it is a speculative business. Half a dozen inches to the right or left, and you are, as Fate may decide, a pauper or a millionaire. E. C. Williams An English traveler, in Across Persia (1907) Contours.: Contours.Craig is Clay: Craig is ClayBubbling Gas: Bubbling Gas Gas Seep-Craig East Bank Demerara-Movie available. The Sediments: The Sediments Terragenous sediments: Overburden at Bauxite mines in Linden.Inland Mangroves at Craig, E.B.D.: Inland Mangroves at Craig, E.B.D. Mangroves East of the Craig public road Mangroves were rejuvenated in the 1980’s when The Craig koker collapsed elsewhere the mangroves are to be found only west of the public road along the Demerara river bank. The electronic version of the Guyana Vegetation Map differs from the Printed version by just one detail.. The Mangroves along the mouth of the Demerara were omitted from the electronic version. Proves the Estuarine/ Lagoon setting that once prevailed. Craig Vegetation similar to Saramacca: Mangroves and Euterpe oleracea. : Craig Vegetation similar to Saramacca: Mangroves and Euterpe oleracea. In the Heart of the Zone.Newer Vegetation map.: Newer Vegetation map. Not all the mangroves are shown on this version.Mangroves on Demerara River Bank shown on this version:: Mangroves on Demerara River Bank shown on this version: Mangroves shown along river and inland in the Craig area do exist and can be verified. Photograph of printed map showing mangroves along coast ,along the Demerara River and along the Mahaica River.Sand Bags at Craig River Bend 2005: Sand Bags at Craig River Bend 2005 Note the inflow of sea water rich in marine clay sediments.Where did all the Mangroves go?: Where did all the Mangroves go? Collapse of River Dam at Craig EBDEast Demerara with no seawalls.: East Demerara with no seawalls. The Georgetown and East Coast Demerara were all once covered by Mangroves but due to drainage and polderisation the mangroves which were also the primary fuel source during the 1800’s have been almost totally wiped out. Reason: Reduced soil salinity and de-forestation. 2005 Flood picture showing what was all once mudflat.Mangroves along Demerara River: Mangroves along Demerara RiverMangroves at Wales WBD: Mangroves at Wales WBDE will always=MC²: E will always=MC²Lithostratigraphy: Lithostratigraphy Did we explore? 8 years of Research and Exploration !: Did we explore? 8 years of Research and Exploration !Did we analyze all over?: Did we analyze all over? Minor oil shows were observed at several horizons, but the predicted sandstone reservoirs are not present. This part of the basin had been affected by a Tertiary hydrothermal event that drove the thick source shales into overmaturity and destroyed porosity in all potential reservoir units. This event plus unfortunate timing of Late Tertiary (Miocene) structural reactivation severely downgrade the petroleum potential of the Takutu basin.Were observations and analysis made of recent onshore drilling?: Were observations and analysis made of recent onshore drilling? At CGX’s well site at Yakusari BBP The writer informed CGX On numerous occasions of The errors and manipulation of data that they were guilty of. As well as what to expect From the three holes in sand traps.Slide136: THE END OR THE TRUE BEGINNING…Essequibo: Essequibo 1.Essequibo River torn open remnants become the islands. 2.East Bank Essequibo is Pushed up and rides over present day East Bank Demerara. The East Bank Essequibo block rotates and a southern point in the vicinity of Bartica cracks open the Mazaruni River and then levers the Cuyuni River open. Slide138: Further details.Remote Sensing.: Remote Sensing. Area of overlap and clay deposits outlined to the west. 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