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ECCE Education Task Force Prof. Iacint MANOLIU (UAICR) ECCE Task Force Education Chairman First results 42nd ECCE meeting, November 11th – 12th, 2005, Istanbul, Turkey of the Tuning Project with the participation of EUCEET and ECCE

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CONTENT What is Tuning EUCEET-ECCE-Tuning – phases of the action EUCEET-ECCE-Tuning – a chronology of the preparatory phase EUCEET-ECCE-Tuning – the on-line consultation phase EUCEET-ECCE-Tuning – first results of the on-line consultation EUCEET-ECCE-Tuning – a final task : writing the “Summary of Tuning subject area findings”

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What is Tuning?

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The TUNING project is a project by and for universities It is the Universities’ response to the challenge of the Bologna Declaration TUNING MOTTO Tuning of educational structures and programmes on the basis of diversity and autonomy

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Tuning Phase I 2001- 2002 Closing Conference Brussels, 31 May 2002 Tuning Phase II 2003 – 2004 Closing Conference Brussels, 21 May 2004 Tuning Phase III 2005 – 2006 Launching Conference Budapest, 22 - 23 April 2005

The Tuning Methodology : 

The Tuning Methodology Line 1: Generic competences Consultation with graduates, employers and academics on the importance of 30 generic competences and an evaluation of how well HE institutions develop them Line 2: Subject specific competences (knowledge, understanding and skills) Mapping of subject areas and development of common reference points and subject specific competences of each of the pilot disciplines Line 3: ECTS as a European credit accumulation system: new perspectives Development of ECTS as a tool for programme design: basis is student workload measured in time Line 4: Mapping of approaches to teaching / learning and assessment in different countries Line 5: Quality enhancement

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FOCUS ON GENERIC COMPETENCES (GENERAL ACADEMIC SKILLS) TARGET GROUPS: GRADUATES EMPLOYERS ACADEMICS WHAT ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT COMPETENCES TO BE EMPLOYABLE INDEPENDENT OF ONE’S SUBJECT AREA? ARE THESE ACTUALY TAUGHT AND TO WHAT EXTENT? THE TUNING QUESTIONNAIRE

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TYPES OF COMPETENCES MEASURED: Instrumental competences: cognitive abilities, methodological abilities, technological abilities and linguistic abilities Interpersonal competences: individual abilities like social skills (social interaction and co-operation) Systemic competences: abilities and skills concerning whole systems (combination of understanding, sensibility and knowledge; prior acquisition of instrumental and interpersonal competences required) THE TUNING QUESTIONNAIRE

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7 Areas & 101 university depart. & 16 Countries Business Geology History Mathematics Physics Education Chemistry Total number of respondents: 5183 Graduates 944 Employers 998 Academics Data Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Thematic Networks and Tuning: How to adapt and how to adopt the Tuning methodology? : 

Thematic Networks and Tuning: How to adapt and how to adopt the Tuning methodology?

Tuning envisages co-operation with Thematic Networks at three levels: : 

Tuning envisages co-operation with Thematic Networks at three levels: I. Exchange of Information II. Cooperation as a Synergy Group III. Cooperation as a Core Area

II. Cooperation as a Synergy Group : 

II. Cooperation as a Synergy Group Aim: Develop knowledge of Tuning Methodology with regard to some of the Tuning lines. Option made by EUCEET and ECCE: - Line 1 Generic competences Consultation of only of academics and employers - Line 2 Subject specific competences Consultation of academics

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EUCEET –Tuning A comparison

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EUCEET-ECCE-Tuning Phases of the action

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EUCEET-ECCE-Tuning a 4-phase action The preparatory phase 29 January 2004-10 December 2004 The on-line consultation phase 1 March 2005-16 July 2005 Analysis of data resulting from the on-line consultation phase made by the Tuning specialist in statistics and by TUCEB IV. Preparation of the “Summary of Tuning subject area findings”

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EUCEET-ECCE-Tuning preparatory phase A chronology

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29 January 2004 Brussels, TNs Coordinators meeting “All Thematic Networks must include Tuning elements in the proposal for 2004 – 2005” (Mr. Ettore Deodato, responsible for TNs in the DG Education and Culture) 16 February 2004 Paris, meeting of the EUCEET Management Committee MC decides to involve EUCEET as a synergy group in the Tuning Line 1 (Generic Competences) and Tuning Line 2 (Subject Specific Competences) and to found the EUCEET-Tuning Task Force chaired by Prof. Iacint Manoliu. It is also decided to ask Tuning MC to nominate Prof. Hendrik Ferdinande from Gent University as “Tuning expert” for EUCEET.

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15 March 2004 Ghent Meeting between Prof. Hendrik Ferdinande, nominated by Tuning Coordinator as a Tuning expert for EUCEET, and Prof. Iacint Manoliu 6 May 2004 Malta, 2nd EUCEET II General Assembly Prof. Hendrik Ferdinande makes in the plenary session a presentation on Tuning.

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7 May 2004 Malta, after the closure of the 2nd EUCEET II General Assembly First meeting of the EUCEET-Tuning Task Force Attendance: 38 delegates from 31 universities partners in EUCEET II, coming from 21 countries. Presentation of Prof. Ferdinande with the topic: “Thematic Network and Tuning. How to adopt and how to adapt the Tuning methodology?” Discussions which followed made clear that: For Generic Competences, the 3 Questionnaires prepared by Tuning (for Graduates, for Employers and for Academics) have to be used. For Subject Specific Competences, a Questionnaire pertinent to Civil Engineering field must be produced by the EUCEET-Tuning Task Force

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24 September 2004 Paris, joint EUCEET Tuning Task Force and EUCEET MC meeting attended by: M-A. Cammarota (ENPC) R. Frank (ENPC) D.L. Smith (Imperial College) C. Kerr (Imperial College) A. Lovas (Budapest UTE) G. Farkas (Budapest UTE) P. Latinopoulos (AU Tessaloniki) E. Bratteland (NUST Trondheim) S. Majewski (SUT Gliwice) J.J. Aracil (ETSICCP Madrid) V. Kuraz (CTU Prague) R. Reinecke (IBR Munich) L. Boswell (City University London) M. Federau (IUT Odense) I. Manoliu (TUCEB) N. Radulescu (TUCEB) A draft of the Questionnaire on Specific Conferences in civil Engineering is produced

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11 November 2004 After consultations with Prof. Majewski, Prof. Manoliu sends to the members of the Task Force a new version of the questionnaire, containing 18 competences (instead of 21) and completed with commentaries. 24 November 2004 Meeting in Ghent between Prof. Hendrik Ferdinande and Prof. Iacint Manoliu Prof. Ferdinande fully agreed with the Questionnaire and showed the report of the Tuning MC meeting in Bilbao, on 6 - 7 November 2004, in which a section was devoted to Thematic Networks. 27 September 2004 An amendment on the draft is proposed by Iacint Manoliu and endorsed by members of the Task Force.

Introduction to questionnaire on the evaluation of the importance of specific competences for civil engineering : 

Introduction to questionnaire on the evaluation of the importance of specific competences for civil engineering Below are presented a series of competences specific to your area. For each of them we would ask you to do two things: a. Indicate how important you think it is that a student should require the competence in his/her education for the First Cycle. Please use the values 1 to 4 according to the following key: 1 = None, 2 = Weak, 3 = Considerable, 4 = Strong. Please, select the options in the corresponding box using the mouse of your computer. b. Indicate how important you think it is that a student should acquire the competence in his/her education for the second cycle. Please use the values 1 to 4 according to the following key: 1 = None, 2 = Weak, 3 = Considerable, 4 = Strong. Please select the option in the corresponding box using the mouse of your computer. Important note. By preparing the questionnaire, the EUCEET Tuning Task Force considered that the First Cycle is leading to a degree being by itself "relevant to the European labour market", as required by the Bologna Declaration. Some of the competences listed below and commentaries are adapted from the outcomes defining the "Body of knowledge" developed in 2003 by a Committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

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In the "Body of knowledge", three levels of competence are defined, as follows: Level 1 (Recognition) represents a reasonable level of familiarity with a concept. At this level, the engineer is familiar with a concept, but lacks the knowledge to specify and procure solutions without additional expertise. For example, an engineer might recognize that a particular architectural plan poses significant construction difficulties without having the expertise to devise improved construction or design alternatives. Level 2 (Understanding) implies a thorough mental grasp and comprehension of a concept or topic. Understanding requires more than abstract knowledge and is the basis for creative developing and practical applying this knowledge. Understanding refers not only to the scientific and technical aspects, but to the ethical consequences and responsibility as well. Level 3 (Ability) is a capability to perform with competence. An engineer with the ability to design a particular system can take responsibility for the system, identifying all the necessary aspects of the design, and match objectives with appropriate technological solutions. As an engineer develops, the engineer’s abilities also develop so that more challenging and difficult problems can be solved.

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Civil Engineering Questionnaire for academics

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CIVIL ENGINEERING: Generic Competences Questionnaire for academics and employers Listed below are the 17 competences which have been considered in the project Tuning Educational Structures in Europe as most important for the professional development of university graduates, regardless the degree and the field. Please rank below the five most important competences according to your opinion. Please write the number of the item within the box. Mark on the first box the most important, on the second box the second most important and so on.

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24 November 2004 Excerpts from the Report of the Tuning MC meeting in Bilbao: “Thematic Networks The project coordinators thank all MC members for the work they have done as Tuning counsellors over the past year. It has been time consuming but rewarding. However, for Tuning III in which about 20 TN’s will apply the Tuning approach, a more targeted and less energy taking procedure is needed. So far Tuning and the TN’s were in a process of information. Some of the TNs are quite advanced in applying Tuning, others are not”. 29 November 2004 Pablo Beneitone from Deusto University sends the template produced during the Tuning MC meeting in Bilbao for the use of TNs.

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9 December 2004 Pablo. Beneitone writes to Prof. Manoliu: “If you want to conduct the consultation shortly, we could give you an on-line platform to do it. We could put the questionnaire on-line and you could inform your partners that they should complete the questionnaire on-line.” 10 December 2004 At the EUCEET II Management Committee meeting in Barcelona, a State-of-the-art of EUCEET-Tuning is presented by I. Manoliu, along with the offer made by Tuning Coodinator, Deusto University. The Management Committee decides unanimously the use the consultation on-line. It is decided also that surveys will be undertaken only among academics and employers, skipping the survey among graduates. A plan of action concerning the involvement of EUCEET in Tuning is adopted.

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EUCEET-ECCE-Tuning The on-line consultation phase

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1st February 2005 Meeting of Tuning Coordinator with TNs representatives Brussels An agreement on the involvement of EUCEET II in Tuning is concluded in the following terms: surveys only among academics and employers the same questionnaire on generic competences for both academic and employers, namely the questionnaire with 17 generic competences prepared by Tuning for academics respondents to be asked to rank the first 5 (among 17) of the generic competences survey to be conducted on-line using the facilities of Deusto University 20 February 2005 The list of usernames for academics and for employers for the on-line consultation is sent by Deusto University 1st March 2005 A letter providing the usernames and the invitation for participation in the consultation on-line is sent by ENPC to all EUCEET II partners

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List of usernames for countries

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23rd April 2005 Meeting of Tuning Coordinator with TNs representatives, Budapest “Tuning and the Thematic Networks: the way ahead” An extension of the deadline of the on-line consultation until 15th July 2005 is obtained

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One of the hundreds e-mails received during the EUCEET-ECCE-Tuning exercise: “I am the Dean and therefore my answers are official. Can you tell me what will the others say that can be different from the official answer?”

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EUCEET-ECCE-Tuning First results of the on-line consultation 1. Analysis made by the Tuning specialist in statistics, Mr. Paul Laka from Deusto University, who sent on 22 September 2005 the following pp presentation

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Cluster sampling: Respondents clustered within universities or countries Assumptions of Simple Random Sampling (SRS) may not be valid: respondents are not strictly independent as subjected to a cluster effect,... SURVEY SAMPLING Design effect: Clustered design is widely used in research and does not represent a source of bias Cluster sampling affects the survey sampling error: it is increased depending on differences in measured items among clusters Further analysis: Simple Random Sampling estimates and procedures will not be used in either univariate or multivariate analysis All further estimates and conclusions take into account the clustered nature of data at country level

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SPECIFIC COMPETENCES

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Sample distribution: Specific Competences

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Shorter labels are used for each item:

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EUCEET: Specific Competences 1st CYCLE 95% Confidence intervals, ordered competences

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EUCEET: Specific Competences 2nd CYCLE 95% Confidence intervals, ordered competences

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EUCEET: Specific Competences 1st & 2nd CYCLE Competences by order in questionnaire

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EUCEET: Specific Competences 1st & 2nd CYCLE Competences ordered according to 1st cycle

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EUCEET: Specific Competences 1st & 2nd CYCLE Competences ordered according to 2nd cycle

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EUCEET: Specific Competences 1st & 2nd CYCLE Competences ordered according to differences between cycles

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ITEMS where countries showed some significant heterogeneity (meaning that at least one of the countries showed a significant difference from the overall mean, a<1%))

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GENERIC COMPETENCES

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Sample distribution: Generic Competences

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Shorter labels are used for each item:

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EUCEET: Generic Competences RANKING, Academics Decreasing ranking

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ITEMS where countries showed some significant heterogeneity

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EUCEET-ECCE-Tuning A final task: writing the “Summary of Tuning subject area findings”

Template for summary of Tuning subject area findings[Name of Subject Area] : 

Template for summary of Tuning subject area findings[Name of Subject Area] Introduction to the subject area [maximum 2000 characters including spaces] A general description of the subject area and its key characteristics: is it understood in the same way in all European countries or are there relevant differences; are there any other particular aspects that should be mentioned in an overview. Degree profile(s) [in table form] Typical degrees offered in the subject area First cycle in (name subject area / specific parts) Second cycle in (name subject area / specific parts) Third cycle in (name subject area / specific parts)

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Typical occupations of the graduates in the subject area (map of professions) First cycle Second cycle Third cycle Role of subject area in other degree programmes [maximum 1000 characters including spaces] Which programmes and in what way. Learning outcomes & competences - level cycle descriptors [in table form] First cycle (subject specific and generic) Second cycle (subject specific and generic) Third cycle (subject specific and generic) Which are the main learning outcomes expressed in the relevant subject specific and generic competences (from the Tuning list of generic competences) for the different cycles, taking into account the level of the competence (what the graduate knows and is able to do) that has to be achieved. Consultation process with stakeholders [maximum 1000 characters including spaces]

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Workload and ECTS Workload of the typical degree programmes expressed in ECTS-credits: First cycle (180-240?) Second cycle (60-90-120?) Third cycle (120-180-240?) Trends and differences within the European higher education area in this subject area. [maximum 2000 characters including spaces] Learning, teaching & assessment [maximum 4000 characters including spaces] Three example of best practice in learning, teaching and assessment to achieve competences relevant to the subject area. Quality enhancement [maximum 2000 characters including spaces] Subject area related observations on the use of Tuning tools in programme design, delivery, monitoring and improvement. Actual content and deadline : to be discussed and agreed upon with Tuning Coordinator

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