APPROACHES IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS : APPROACHES IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS Activity 1. READ : Activity 1. READ Scenario 2
“Teacher, can you spare a sign?”
My worst experience with a
teacher was during our Math
class. I loved math and really
thought I knew and understood
math. But my math teacher
sent me home crying everyday
because she marked my
homework and test wrong since
I used to get my positive and
negative signs wrong. I knew
how to do the problems, but I
always got my answers with
wrong sign. Slide 3: Reflect:
The above scenario illustrate the difficulties
experienced by some unfortunate learners. But
can we afford to let such kind of teachers? They
affect the way our learners feel about math? Let’s
hope not. Slide 4: Therefore, it behooves upon every teacher to
strive to improve her/his teaching style to increase
the number of children liking, and even loving
mathematics. Such should start as early as in the
Furthermore, the use of varied and appropriate
teaching approaches can entice more learners to
like and love math. A. DISCOVERY APPROACH : A. DISCOVERY APPROACH Slide 6: The ultimate goal of this approach is that
learners learn how to learn rather than
what to learn. This is an effective approach
for helping learners to understand concepts
and generalizations and for developing their
higher-order thinking skills. This approach
refers to an “Inductive Method” of guiding
learners to discuss and use ideas already
acquired as a means of discovering new
ideas. Slide 7: Discovery Learning is
“International Learning” . Both
the teacher and the learner play
active roles in discovery learning
depending upon on the role that
the teacher plays, this can range
from guided discovery (needs
strict supervision) to free or pure
discovery (very little supervision
needed) B.INQUIRY TEACHING : B.INQUIRY TEACHING Slide 9: Inquiry Teaching involves providing learners with content-related problems that serve as the foci for class research activities.
The teacher provides/presents a problem then the learners identify the problem. Such problem provides the focus which lead to the formulation of the hypothesis by the learners.
Once the hypotheses have been formulated, the learners’ task is to gather data to test hypotheses. The gathered data are being organized then data analysis follow to arrive to conclusion/generalization. C. DEMONSTRATION APPROACH : C. DEMONSTRATION APPROACH Slide 11: Demonstration Approach is a teaching strategy in which the teacher engages “in a learning task other than just talking about it”. The teacher’s role is to “know and show” while that of the children is to “listen and follow”.
This approach is more effective if used after a lesson has been presented through discovery. It is more useful in strengthening computational skills, but NEVER in presenting a new concept. D. MATH-LAB APPROACH : D. MATH-LAB APPROACH Slide 13: The Mathematics Laboratory Approach is a method of teaching whereby children in small groups work through an assignment/task card, learn and discover mathematics for themselves. The children work in an informal manner, move around, discuss and choose their materials and method of attacking a problem, assignment or task. E. PRACTICAL WORK APPROACH (PWA) : E. PRACTICAL WORK APPROACH (PWA) Slide 15: The learners in this approach, manipulate concrete objects and/or perform activities to arrive at a conceptual understanding of phenomena, situation, or concept. The environment is a laboratory where the natural events/phenomena can be subjects of mathematical or scientific investigations. Activities can be done in the garden, in the yard, in the field, in the school grounds, or anywhere as long as the safety of the learners is assured. That’s why elementary schools are encouraged to put up a Math park. F. INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION USING MODULES : F. INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION USING MODULES Slide 17: The application of Individualized Instruction permits the learners to progress by mastering steps through the curriculum at his/her own rate and independently of the progress of other pupils.
Individualizing instruction does not imply that every pupil in the class must be involved in an activity separates and distinct from that of every other child.
For example: In a class of 30-40 learners, a group of five to seven learners can be allowed to play a game carefully selected for the purpose of helping them to strengthen a particular skill. In another corner, a small group of learners may be given problem situations to be solved using geoboards. Another group may be motivated to tackle activity cards on computational skills.
There are many ways of individualizing instruction: grouping, modules- self-learning kits/materials, programmed materials, daily prescriptions, contracts, etc. G. BRAINSTORMING : G. BRAINSTORMING Slide 19: It is a teaching strategy in which the teacher elicits from the learners as many ideas as possible but refrains from evaluating them until all possible ideas have been generated. It is an excellent strategy for stimulating creativity among learners. Both the teacher and the learners play an active role in brainstorming.
Although there may be many variations, brainstorming usually occurs in 4 phases: 1) problem identification, 2) idea generation, 3) idea evaluation, and 4) solution implementation and evaluation.
The teacher should act as the facilitator in the idea-generation and should record all responses. He should also encourage everyone to participate and should also accept all suggestions regardless of how silly or strange they may seem.
During the idea-generation stage, criticism or evaluation of the learner’s ideas is NOT permitted. H. PROBLEM-SOLVING : H. PROBLEM-SOLVING Slide 21: Problem-solving can best be defined as a learner-directed strategy in which learners “think patiently and analytically about complex situations in order to find answers to questions”. A problem is defined as a “situation in which you are trying to reach some goal, and must find means for getting there”.
When using problem-solving for the first time, select a simple problem that can be completed in a short amount of time. Consider learners’ interest, ability level, and maturation level. Make sure resources (materials or equipment) are available. Make sure that learners are familiar with brainstorming before you implement problem-solving. I. COOPERATIVE LEARNING : I. COOPERATIVE LEARNING Slide 23: Cooperative learning is helpful in eliminating competition among learners.
It encourages them to work together towards common goals.
It fosters positive intergroup attitudes in the classroom.
It encourages learners to work in small groups to learn. The group learns a particular content/concept and every member is expected to participate actively in the discussion, with the fast learners helping the slower ones learn the lesson.
Its tangible benefits are learning to share, taking turns and cooperation. Slide 24: Cooperative Learning can take many forms.
Peer tutoring is effective for facts, skills and goals. Its structure is for drill & practice supplement regular instruction
Student Teams - is for facts and skills. Its structure is heterogeneous team reinforced for team performance.
Group Investigation - is effective for group problem-solving/Inquiry. Its structure is heterogeneous with teams assigned to group projects.
Jigsaw is effective for group investigation. Its structure is individual team members assigned to facets of a large topic. J. INTEGRATIVE TECHNIQUE : J. INTEGRATIVE TECHNIQUE Slide 26: The Integrated Curriculum Mode (Integrative teaching to some) is both a “method of teaching and a way of organizing the instructional program so that many subject areas and skills provided in the curriculum can be linked to one another”. Modes of Integration: : Modes of Integration: Content-Based: The content of Science and Health can be integrated in the teaching of language skills in English. Some topics/content in Sibika at Kultura and Heograpiya/ Kasaysayan/ Sibika were used as vehicle for the language skills development in Filipino.
Using Thematic Teaching: Some themes can center on celebrations, current issues, learner’s interests/hobbies, priority K. Other Strategies/ Techniques : K. Other Strategies/ Techniques Social Activities
Dramatization and Dramatic Play
Stories and Songs
Games/ Contests Slide 29: “ Being deeply loved by pupils gives you strength, loving them deeply gives you courage.” Slide 30: Thank You!!!!!!!