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NATURAL VEGETATION Natural vegetation is generally classified into three broad categories :- Forest Shrubs Grasslands



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. 3.Employment:- 2.Grazing animal husbandry:-

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4. Shelter :-

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Indirect Uses :- 1. Industrial Raw material: 2. Medicines

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3. Paper :- Papyrus , a grass like plant , was used more than 1000 years again the first endeavor by Egyptians , to make paper. The Chinese , around 100 A.D , invented a method of manufacturing paper that is still used today. The fibers from the plant are placed in water, reduced to put a pulp. After the water has been sieved off the remaining pulp is pressed, & then allowed to dry to yield a very thin sheet of paper. Also there are many indirect uses such as wood , rubber & gum , etc.

Uses of Wildlife : 

Uses of Wildlife Wild animals roam free in forest & mountains whereas domestic animals are cared by man. So, both are useful to us. Animals keep the balance of oxygen & carbon dioxide in nature as they give carbon dioxide to plants for making food. They also provide us with milk & other useful products. We get milk from cow , buffaloes & goat .

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Milk is rich in proteins & fats. It is also called completed food because young ones live wholly on milk. Some people eat flesh & eggs of animals. We get wool from the fleecy hair of sheep , yak , etc. Domestic animals such as dog are also helpful to us as they watches our house farms & many other uses.

Conservation of natural vegetation & wildlife : 

Conservation of natural vegetation & wildlife Forests are our wealth. Plants give shelter to the animals & together they maintain the ecosystem. Changes of climate & human interferences can cause the loss of natural habitat for the plants & animals. Many species have become vulnerable or endangered & some are on the verge of extinction due to deforestation, soil erosion, forest fire , tsunami & landslides caused by human & natural factors. The animals are poached for collection & illegal trade of hides , skins , nails , teeth , horns as well as feathers. Some of these animals are tigers , lion , elephant , deer , etc.

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These can be conserved by increasing awareness. National parks , wildlife sanctuaries , biosphere reserves are made to protect our natural vegetation & wildlife. Human activities in several parts of the world have disturbed the natural habitat of many species. Due to indiscriminate killings , several birds & animals have either become extinct or are on the verge of extinction. Many countries have passed laws against the trades as well as killing of birds & animals. In India killing lions, tigers , deer, great Indian bustard & peacocks is illegal.

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An international convention CITES has been established that lists several of animals & birds in which trade is prohi- bitted. Conservation of plants & animals is an ethical duty of every citizen.


MODIFICATION OF NATURAL VEGETATION Vegetation is a new interdisciplinary science, studying the laws of evolution of watershed. Vegetation under the action of ecological stress, especially soil erosion. Soil erosion is the most important natural ecological stress & human activities are the non-natural stress. The ecological stresses impacting the vegetation are :- Natural stresses , such as erosion , drought , storm and the damages by animals. Human stresses , such as air pollution , grazing , mining & road construction.

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In addition , indirect stress like acid rain is also caused by human activities. India alone is using more than 1.5 million hectares of forest cover each year & 22 million hectare of forests are being destroyed during the last three decades due to overexploitation , misuse & their conservation into agricultural land.

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Deforestation has caused depletion of large number of species & their natural habitats. Also large tracts of forest lands have been cleared for the purpose of agriculture , fuel , timber , livestock , etc. The area under forest cover is there- fore constantly falling.


MODIFICATION OF WILDLIFE During the last few decades , wildlife all over the country has come under intense pressure. Pollution , climate change deforestation , industrialization & population explosion have destroyed the natural habitat of wildlife. Large scale poaching of animals for their fur , skin , tusks , horns , and other body parts is responsible for the rapid extinction of many animals. Animals are sold on a large scale in international markets for handsome amounts of money. Animals are in great demand in zoos & as pets.

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They are also used in scientific research & experiments. Today most of the animal species are on the verge of extinction. Over 6000 species are officially acknowledged to be endangered. Their natural population tends to be quite small , because each individual requires proportionally more territory.

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