Highlights on Carbon

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Did you know that Nano tube must be made of Singlets Carbon atoms only? New ideas about the Carbon forms: Diamond, Graphite, Fullerene Buckyball and nanotubes. This presentation has animations that can be seen only if downloaded.

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Highlights on Carbon:

Highlights on Carbon By Noam Amir Ness Ziona, Israel

Preface:

Preface Approximately on 300 BC, two theories were offered about the Earth, Sun and the stars. The Heliocentrism - was offered by  Aristarchus of Samos. The Geocentrism - was offered by Aristotle   and Ptolemy. As Aristotle and Ptolemy were more dominant, Science was blocked for almost 1800 years from seeing the astronomical facts correctly. Until Copernicus and Kepler dared to oppose this theory and convince the scientists that Heliocentrism is the right theory.

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Similar situation is currently with Quantum Physics. The claim that particles like electrons, that has mass and momentum, can’t have a location or trajectory, blocks scientists from seeing simple facts. Instead, they try to explain these facts only by wave function and probability methods.

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Carbon has 6 electrons, 4 of them in the valence shell and its schematic picture is: Those who know about orbital, show it like this: But no one dares to offer explanation how the electrons are located in the orbital.

Slide5:

Fortunately, X-Rays Crystallography enables us to understand the spatial structure of the matter. Knowing that the connection forces between atoms in the molecule are covalence bonds they are represented as connection lines between dots that represent the nuclei. So for Carbon we see the following presentations:

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The presentation of the connections forces between the atoms as lines, is not the enough. We should consider that due to Pauli’s Exclusion Principle, the spins of the two electrons that make this covalent bond must be opposite . So, if one atom has a down spin electron in this bond, the other atom must have an up spin electron in it. Therefore, in order to be accurate, we must show the spin of the electrons in the schematic model of the atoms. I will show it in my scheme by ending the up spin electrons presenting rods with male cones, While the down spin electrons presenting rods will end with female cones and another color.

Slide7:

The current separation of the Carbon atoms, into two groups: singlets and triplets is not the right one. There is only one kind of singlet carbon atom, but there are two different triplets carbon atoms : one with plus spin sum and the other with minus spin sum. Their presentations will be then as below: Singlet Triplet(+) Triplet(-)

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If we connect the schematic Carbon atoms in a way that the rods will be connected by their end cones, male to female, allowing the atoms to rotate around the rods axis, we will get the spatial structure of the variety of options the Carbon atoms can be connected at.

Slide9:

Many presentations of the carbon show it as connected to the neighboring carbon atoms in a flat Hexagon. This is not correct. For flat hexagon, one must have three double bonds in the hexagon. The single bond atoms will yield two options of bent hexagons: U shape S (or Z) shape

Slide10:

The U shape hexagon with the two bents to the same direction is not stable and can be twisted easily as can be seen below, until it flips to the S (or Z ) shape hexagon with the two opposite bents, that are spatially fixed and can’t twist internally. This hexagon is the building block of the Graphen layer.

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If we rotate the hexagon S shape ring through it’s Z or X axis, it change from S shape into Z shape, while rotation through the Y axis, doesn’t make any change . This seems to be negligible, but it is important to the arrangement of atoms between the layers as we will see later.

Graphen layer:

Graphen layer

Slide13:

We can see that the bent hexagon ring of carbon atoms is arranged in a way that it has three connection rods in one direction, and another three on the other direction. These represent the valence electrons that are responsible for the connection of the the layers of Graphen. These electrons may be with any combination of spins, and therefore, in the scheme, we may have any combination of rods.

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When Two layers of Graphen have the opposite spins in all their mating rods, the connection between the layers will be covalent bonding and we get diamond.

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When the two layers don’t have opposite spins in all the connection rods, covalent bonding of the layers is not possible, the rods will be shifted aside having Van Der Waals forces connections with the nuclei, and we will get Graphite.

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Therefore, we can easily see that: The fundamental difference between diamond and graphite is the spin arrangement between the covalence connection electron - the “rods” in the scheme that protrude from the schematic model of the Graphen. Another difference is the formation method. At the graphite, at first, the Graphen layers are formed and then they join together. As not all their bonding electrons have opposite spins, they bond using Van Der Walls forces.

Slide17:

Diamond is formed the way crystals do. A seed carbon atom at the transient layer between solid and liquid (or gas), attach to its valence electrons (rods in our scheme ) the valence electrons of other carbon atoms in covalent bonding. The electrons of these bonds must have opposite spins. The enormous forces that are applied from the outside, and the electric repulsion between the electrons push away any carbon atom that don’t have the opposite spin for each of the covalent bonds. The atoms with the correct spins of the valence electrons, bond and solidify in the correct crystalline structure. This process continues and spreads like a pyramid of atoms.

Slide18:

Another argument that we should consider is the combination between the layers. If we rotate the Graphen layer through it’s Z or X axis, it change from S layer into Z layer, while rotation through the Y axis, doesn’t make a change. Therefore, the layers connection, may be with two possible orientation: E ach layer is the same as the neighboring layer (Z layer with Z layer, or S layer with S layer). Opposite neighboring layers (Z layer with S layer or S layer with Z layer).

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Therefore, Theoretically, we should have two options of Diamonds: One with S layer connected with S layer, and the other with S layer connected with Z layer. S layer connected with Z layer S layer connected with S layer

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When we look at the vertical hexagons of both options we see that for the S with S option the Vertical hexagon is Z shape while for the S on Z option, the vertical hexagon is U shape -which we already know, is not stable and tend to flip to the stable S or Z shape. Therefore, practically, diamond has S (or Z) layers connected with same shape layers. This is for both directions- horizontally and vertically. S layer connected with Z layer S layer connected with S layer

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Same situation occurs with Graphite. The combination between the layers yield two levels of strength of the Van Der Walls bonds, The wicker one is while the layers are with same S on S orientation, which cause the atoms of both layers to be oriented so the hexagons are located one above the other. The stronger option is when the layers are S on Z combination, the layers are arranged so the hexagon corner of one layer is located in the middle of the hexagon of the other layer, In this position, the Van Der Waals bonds are much stronger. Therefore, Graphite arrange itself as S on Z layers.

Slide22:

So we see another difference between diamond and graphite, the arrangement of the Graphen layers. In diamond, the arrangement is a layer on the same direction of layer, while in graphite, the arrangement is opposite direction layers one upon the other. But how these Covalent bonds and Van Der Waals forces really works? To understand it properly, you should be familiar with my assumption about how the atom really is- my particle model of the atom.

The basics of my model of the atom:

The basics of my model of the atom The electric charges cause the electron to circle the nucleus in a closed loop due to the Coulomb force and the nucleus should be perpendicular to the center of the loop’s plain . The nucleus is located aside from the plan of the electron’s rotation. The side of this shift is determined by the spin of the electron.

The basics of my model of the atom:

The basics of my model of the atom The electron’s trajectory obeys de Broglie matter waves with the standing wave need: In addition, all the changing influences between the electrons in the atom, are forming also standing waves, so the superposition of them gives a stable standing wave.

The basics of my model of the atom:

The basics of my model of the atom The electron’s trajectory should be located in the orbital according to the wave function and the quantum numbers. Pauli Exclusion Principle should be kept. In each orbital will be maximum two electrons, which must be with opposite spins.

Slide26:

Bohr’s model My model

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The shifted aside electron, has an attraction force with the nucleus of a nearby atom. This is the base of the chemical bonds.

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In order to make it easy to understand the spatial picture, we should define some rules for spins, positions, rotational directions and magnetic fields:

:

S N Electron with positive (+1/2) spin will circle like that, forming magnetic field with the North pole pointing outwards from the nucleus.

While circling in the same direction, electron with negative spin (-1/2) , will be pushed to the other side, forming magnetic field with the South pole pointing outwards from the nucleus.:

While circling in the same direction, electron with negative spin (-1/2) , will be pushed to the other side, forming magnetic field with the South pole pointing outwards from the nucleus. S N

If we will look at the same negative spin electron from the opposite direction (we see it near us), it will be seen with same position that was for positive spin but with opposite rotational direction, yet forming magnetic field with the South pole pointing outwards from the nucleus.:

If we will look at the same negative spin electron from the opposite direction (we see it near us), it will be seen with same position that was for positive spin but with opposite rotational direction, yet forming magnetic field with the South pole pointing outwards from the nucleus. N S

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Therefore, we have three ways to defer between electrons with different spins:

:

N S N S A. If we keep the same rotational direction for both electrons, the electron with positive and with negative spins will defer by their position: Near or far from us.

B. If we look from the same direction on both electrons, the direction of rotation of the electron with the positive spine, will be opposite to the one with the negative spin. :

B. If we look from the same direction on both electrons, the direction of rotation of the electron with the positive spine, will be opposite to the one with the negative spin. N S N S

C. The poles of the magnetic fields formed by the electrons rotation, will be pointing to opposite directions for the different spins. :

C. The poles of the magnetic fields formed by the electrons rotation, will be pointing to opposite directions for the different spins. N S N S

In order to understand the Covalent bond, we may use the Hydrogen example. The pictures below, shows two possibilities for an Hydrogen atom: One with positive spin electron and the other with negative spin electron.:

In order to understand the Covalent bond, we may use the Hydrogen example. The pictures below, shows two possibilities for an Hydrogen atom: One with positive spin electron and the other with negative spin electron.

If we try to join two atoms of Hydrogen with same spin of their electrons, their magnetic poles repulse each other, and even if we can push them together, we see easily why they can not form a stable molecule:

If we try to join two atoms of Hydrogen with same spin of their electrons, their magnetic poles repulse each other, and even if we can push them together, we see easily why they can not form a stable molecule N S N S

When we join two Hydrogen atoms with opposite spins, their magnetic poles attract each other and we see that their trajectories can join and form easily a stable H2 molecule.:

When we join two Hydrogen atoms with opposite spins, their magnetic poles attract each other and we see that their trajectories can join and form easily a stable H2 molecule. S N N S

It can be seen that in order to be stable, the electrons motion must be synchronized and their relative position should be on the opposite sides of the trajectory. We see clearly that in covalent bonds, the electrons share the same trajectory and orbital. Their spins must be opposite as assumed by Pauli Exclusion Principle. Then, with same r and ω, they conform de Broglie assumption and the standing wave term. :

It can be seen that in order to be stable, the electrons motion must be synchronized and their relative position should be on the opposite sides of the trajectory. We see clearly that in covalent bonds, the electrons share the same trajectory and orbital. Their spins must be opposite as assumed by Pauli Exclusion Principle . Then, with same r and ω , they conform de Broglie assumption and the standing wave term.

Slide40:

We can see that the electric field around the electron is negative, but due to the nucleus positive charge, far from the electron, the charge of the electric field is positive. This shows how Van Der Waals forces may be formed. Van Der Waals forces

In addition to the electric charges, the electrons induce magnetic fields with polarity according to their spins. Even the positive charged sections are divided into areas with North and with South polarities induced from the electrons in the inner shells.:

In addition to the electric charges, the electrons induce magnetic fields with polarity according to their spins. Even the positive charged sections are divided into areas with North and with South polarities induced from the electrons in the inner shells.

The picture below shows an atom of metal with one electron in the outermost shell. As this electron is responsible for the chemical characteristics of the atom, I show it and its trajectory as a disk, while the rest of the atom is shown as a ball.:

The picture below shows an atom of metal with one electron in the outermost shell. As this electron is responsible for the chemical characteristics of the atom, I show it and its trajectory as a disk, while the rest of the atom is shown as a ball.

The negative charged part of the atom- the outermost electron, is attracted by the positive charged part of the neighboring atom, at the area that the magnetic polarity is opposite to the polarity induced by the electron . The distance between the two atoms will be the size that gives a balance between the attraction force of the electron to the neighboring atom, and the retraction forces between the two nuclei and between the electrons of both atoms. This is how this model enables Van Der Waals forces to bond two atoms together. :

The negative charged part of the atom- the outermost electron, is attracted by the positive charged part of the neighboring atom, at the area that the magnetic polarity is opposite to the polarity induced by the electron . The distance between the two atoms will be the size that gives a balance between the attraction force of the electron to the neighboring atom, and the retraction forces between the two nuclei and between the electrons of both atoms. This is how this model enables Van Der Waals forces to bond two atoms together.

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If we show the atom of the carbon according to my model, we just to add the valence electrons trajectories to the end of the rods in our previous schematic presentation of the atom.

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In order to simplify the model, we will show the trajectories as disks knowing that the electrons trajectories are on the edges of these disks, and its rotational direction is according to the spin.

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Molecules are often presented in two ways to represent their spatial structure. For the H2O we see these presentations:

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For the diamond, we can present it as:

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If we add to it the electrons trajectories according to my model of the atom, we get:

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If we hide the rods that are only schematic presentation for the bonding forces, we get:

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By concluding all the electrons of the same atom in a sphere that has a radius equals to the distance of the electron from the nucleus, we get the second option of presentation that we saw before:

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We see that the circles that are created by the intersection of the bondery spheres, are actually, the trajectories of the electrons according to my model.

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We know that the graphite has exelant electric conductivity. The following slides will explain why and how Electric Conductivity occurs. Later on, we will see how it occurs in graphite.

We can notice that the attraction forces on the electron caused by both atoms- F1 and F2 are almost balanced and the electron is almost floating in its trajectory. In this state, a small lateral force applied on the electron is enough to move it aside. This is the principal the electrical conductivity is based on. This model shows how in metals, the electrons are connected to their atoms, and are not common in a virtual “Electrons Sea” and yet, can be moved easily by other electrons to form the electric current.:

We can notice that the attraction forces on the electron caused by both atoms- F1 and F2 are almost balanced and the electron is almost floating in its trajectory. In this state, a small lateral force applied on the electron is enough to move it aside. This is the principal the electrical conductivity is based on. This model shows how in metals, the electrons are connected to their atoms, and are not common in a virtual “Electrons Sea” and yet, can be moved easily by other electrons to form the electric current. F1 F2 Electric Conductivity

The most conductive metals: Aluminum, Copper and Silver, have one electron in their outermost shell. They are arranged in FCC (Face Centered Cubic) arrangement . Below we see how this model enable to arrange them in the correct position so each atom is bond to one of his neighbors in the least energy level combination.:

The most conductive metals: Aluminum, Copper and Silver, have one electron in their outermost shell. They are arranged in FCC (Face Centered Cubic) arrangement . Below we see how this model enable to arrange them in the correct position so each atom is bond to one of his neighbors in the least energy level combination.

When we gather few cubes to form a cluster, we see that the electrons are arranged in lanes and the movement of one electron will cause the neighboring electrons to move and form electric current. In this way electric conductivity is formed. :

When we gather few cubes to form a cluster, we see that the electrons are arranged in lanes and the movement of one electron will cause the neighboring electrons to move and form electric current. In this way electric conductivity is formed.

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For the graphite, we see that the electrons that bond one Graphen layer to the other, are arranged in two flat plains and nothing interrupts the flow of electrons. Giving very good electric conductivity.

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Now that we have seen the single bonded flat Graphen two options, lets see how we get the double bonded Carbon molecules- the fullerene and the nanotubes. Both of these structures of carbon, start from double bond molecules that are connected with the neighboring atoms in single bond connection .

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If only Coulomb forces were involved, due to the symmetric retraction forces between the electrons, we had to get a flat Y shape in the molecule. Both Fullerene and the Nano tubes has a non flat shape. This gives us the hint that somehow the spatial shape of this bond has “branches” that are bent from the plan. As I showed previously, my model of the atom shows that the spatial trajectories of the electrons, add also magnetic poles to the electron’s trajectory, depends on the electron’s spin. To my opinion, the combination of these magnetic forces, are responsible to the bending of the branches.

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In addition both sides of the bond can swivel at the double bond. In this presentation, the double bond “branch” is shown thicker and has other color than the single bond branch.

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My model of the atom, shows that both electrons of the same atom, that take part in the double bond, must be with the same spin, in order to have the same rotational direction. Otherwise, they will bang each other. The two electrons that the other atom donates to this double bond should be also both with the same spins, but it has to be opposite to the spins of the electrons of the first atom. Therefore, a Singlet carbon atom will have two electrons with the same spins left free for connection with other atoms, while a Triplet (+ or -) carbon atom, will have two electrons with opposite spins, left free for connection with other atoms.

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Therefore there can be 4 different options of double bond in Carbon: Triplet + with Triplet - Singlet with singlet Singlet with Triplet - Singlet with Triplet +

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In the Triplet + with Triplet – double bond, the “branches” electrons may have any of the following orientation of the spins . In order to change from one to the other, one branch has to flip it’s bending angle relative to the plan.

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In the C60 Fullerene Buckyball, the hexagons are flat. In order to get a flat Carbon ring, it must have three double bonds pairs. In this situation, the bent electron branches at the edges of the hexagons, create single bonds with the electrons of the neighboring atom. Due to the bending, the angel between the branches is less then 120°, forcing it to be 108 ° and close in a pentagon.

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When we look at the Fullerene Buckyball, paying attention to the need that each bond will have opposite spins we can get to the following conclusions: The Pentagons may (but not necessarily) contain only triplets atoms. They may be any combination of + and – triplets. In this case, all the electrons in the same direction in the pentagon, should have same spin.

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The Pentagons may contain also Singlet atoms. In this case, the number of singlet atoms in the pentagon must be even. Therefore, at least one atom in the pentagon must be Triplet. We see that the parameters needed for the singlet atoms to combine the pentagon are more demanding, so there is very little chance that they will be achieved randomly.

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On the other hand, for Triplet atoms, the only term they have to fulfill in order to create the pentagon, is to keep the sequence of spins. This can be done easily, because the branches can change position easily. Therefore even when positioned randomly, hexagons with three double bonds of triplet atoms, will be able to complete the pentagons and form the fullerene buckyball.

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This brings me to the assumption that the vast majority of the Fullerene buckyball molecules are combined from triplet atoms of Carbon. Another issue is the fact that the fullerene buckyball atom has no free electrons. Therefore it can be connected to another Fullerene buckyball molecule only with the help of another atom , with free electrons that will make the connection by Van Der Walls forces.

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For the nanotubes, we know about the three options of shape

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Nanotubes are formed from layers of carbon that have two double bonds in each hexagon. The two double bonds are located in parallel on two opposite sides of the hexagon. The bending effect of the branches, cause the layer to curl.

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Due to the curling, the opposite sides of the layer come close enough and may connect if the branches have the opposite spins at all the connection points. If the double bond ends of the layer include triplets, there is very little chance that they will suit the other side spins.

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If the layer is made only from singlets, we can easily see that the spins of the ends are arranged systematically and are opposite to the spins of the other end.

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The scheme below shows the arrangement of singlet double bond in the layer. The arrow heads show the direction of the spins. Double bonds are marked with two arrow heads.

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We can curl it horizontally and get the armchair shape. Pay attention that the ends connect with the proper spins.

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We can curl it vertically and get the zigzag shape. Pay attention that again the ends connect with the proper spins.

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If the layer is twisted during the curling, by connecting the ends according to the proper spins, we get the chiral shape.

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Same as with the fullerene buckyball, the nanotube has no free electrons along the tube for covalent bonds with other atoms. The only way to connect to other atoms is by additional atoms that have free electrons who will bond the nanotube by Van Der Walls forces. The ends of the tube have free electrons that enable covalent bonds.

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I hope that this presentation renewed some highlights about Carbon and its forms. Although these highlights can be seen based on my model of the atom, one can achieve the same conclusions by applying Pauli’s Exclusion Principle, for the spins of the two electrons that make the covalent bonds in the Carbon’s atom. For more understanding of my model of the atom, please download the presentation from: View Presentation (Viewing without downloading, shows the presentation without the animations that are very important for understanding.)

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Thanks for your time. Noam Amir Ness-Ziona Israel noam.amir.51@gmail.com

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