making of national movement 1870s-1947

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The Making Of National Movement:1870s-1947:

The Making Of National Movement:1870s-1947 Presented by Narendra Nikam

During the period of British-india before 1870:

During the period of British-india before 1870 BRITISHERS: Conquest territories &takeover of kingdoms . Introduction of new laws & administrative intuitions. Educational changes. Condition of women. Challenges to the caste system. Social & religious reforms. The revolt of 1857 The decline of crafts & growth of industries.

Emergence of Nationalism:

Emergence of Nationalism Nationalism emerged with questions: What is this country of India? For whom it is meant? Answers gradually emerged: India was people of India-irrespective of classes, colour, caste, creed, languages or gender. Its resources & systems were meant to the people of India. These answers created awareness.

Sovereign- the capacity to act independently without outside interference. (key feature of nationalism) :

Consciousness began with formation of political associations after 1850. Political associations came into being in 1870s & 1880s. Associations led by English educated professionals[lawyers].examples : Poorna sarvajanik sabha = for all the people , INC{congress}. Worked in specific parts of the country. Used the idea – people should be sovereign . Sovereign- the capacity to act independently without outside interference. (key feature of nationalism)

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Dissatisfaction with British rule Arms act was passed in 1878disallowing Indians from possessing arms. Vernacular press act was passed- to silence those who were critical about govt. . ilbert bill –sought equality between British & Indian judges. Opposition forced the govt. to withdraw the bill Indians were enraged. This showed racial attitudes of British in India

Publicist- someone who publicises an idea by circulating information, writing, reports, speaking at the meetings. :

Need for all India organisation of educated Indians. congress was established at Bombay in December 1885. the early leadership- Dadabhai Naoroji, w.c.Bonnerji, s. Subramanian Iyer. Dadabhai Naoroji-a businessman & a publicist who settled in London member of British parliament. A.O.Hume-brought Indians together. Publicist- someone who publicises an idea by circulating information, writing, reports, speaking at the meetings .

A.O.Hume:

A.O.Hume

Dadabhai naoroji:

Dadabhai naoroji

W.C Bonnerji:

W.C Bonnerji

Surrendranath bannerji :

Surrendranath bannerji

Baduruddin tyabji:

Baduruddin tyabji

Firoz Shah Mehta:

Firoz Shah Mehta

A NATION IN THE MAKING:

A NATION IN THE MAKING congress in the first twenty years “ moderate” in its objectives and methods. demanded A greater voice for Indians. high positions for Indians. Wanted: Legislative Councils to be made more representative. give more power. For this purpose it called for civil service examinations to be held in India as well, not just in London.

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demand for Indianisation of the administration. important jobs were monopolized by white officials. British generally assumed that Indians could not be given positions of responsibility. Indianisation, it was hope, would also reduce the drain of wealth of England. separation of the judiciary from the executive repeal of the Arms Act freedom of speech and expression.

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Congress raised a number of economic issues. It declared: British rule had led to poverty and famines. impoverished peasants and zamindars. created food shortages. The Congress demanded: reduction of revenue. cut in military expenditure. more funds for irrigation.

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The congress made many resolutions: on the salt tax. treatment of Indian labourers abroad. suffering of forest dwellers. This shows that despite being a body of the educated elite, the Congress did not talk only on behalf of professional groups, zamindars or industrialists.

Moderate leaders:

Moderate leaders wanted to develop public awareness. published newspapers, wrote articles. showed how British rule was leading to the economic ruin of the country. criticized British rule. sent representatives to different parts of the country to mobilize public opinion. felt - the British had respect for the ideals of freedom and justice. accept the just demands of Indians. made the government aware of the feelings of Indians.

“ Freedom is out birthright” :

“ Freedom is out birthright” By the 1890s- Indians began to raise questions about the political style of the Congress? In Bengal , Maharashtra and Punjab, leaders such a Bepin Chandra Pal , Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai were beginning to explore more radical objectives and methods . criticized the Moderates emphasized the importance of self-reliance argued that people must rely on their own strength, not on the “good” intentions of the government people must fight for swaraj Tilak raised the slogan, “ Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it!”

BAL GANGADHAR TILAK:

BAL GANGADHAR TILAK

LALA LAJPAT RAI:

LALA LAJPAT RAI

LAL BAL PAL:

LAL BAL PAL

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1905 Viceroy Curzon partitioned Bengal biggest province of British India - Bengal (included Bihar and parts of Orissa). British argued for dividing Bengal for reasons of administrative convenience . partition of Bengal infuriated people all over India. Congress opposed it. public meetings and demonstrations were organized novel methods of mass protest developed struggle that unfolded came to be known as the Swadeshi movement . strongest in Bengal but with echoes elsewhere too- in deltaic Andhra for instance, it was known as the Vandemataram Movement .

VICEROY CURZON:

VICEROY CURZON

Swadeshi movement :

Swadeshi movement opposed British rule. encouraged the ideas of self – help swadeshi enterprise, national education, and use of Indian languages fight for swaraj advocated mass mobilization boycott of British institutions and goods Some individuals also began to suggest that “ revolutionary violence” would be necessary to overthrow British rule

opening decades of the twentieth century :

opening decades of the twentieth century Muslim landlords and nawabs formed the “All India Muslim League” at Dacca in 1906. league supported the partition of Bengal desired separate electorates for Muslims demand conceded by the government in 1909 Some seats in the councils were now reserved for Muslims. tempted politicians to gather a following by distributing favours to their own religious groups.

Congress split in 1907:

Congress split in 1907 Moderates were opposed to the use of boycott . felt that it involved the use of force . Congress came to be dominated. two groups reunited in December 1915 { Moderates. & Tilak’s followers}. Congress and Muslim League signed the historic Lucknow Pact . worked together for representative government.

The Growth of Mass Nationalism :

The Growth of Mass Nationalism After 1919 the struggle against British rule became a mass movement. involved peasants , tribals , students and women in large numbers & factory workers. business groups too began to actively support the Congress in the 1920s

The First World War :

The First World War First World War created many economic and political situation in India- huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Government of India increased taxes Increased military expenditure demands for was supplies led to a sharp rise in prices Created difficulties for the common people. caused a decline of imports business groups reaped fabulous profits from the war. Indian industries expanded

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lead the British to expand their army Villages were pressurized to supply soldiers soldiers were sent to serve abroad Many returned after the war realising that imperialist powers were exploiting the peoples of Asia and Africa. desire to oppose colonial rule in India. In 1917 there was a revolution in Russia. workers struggled and ideas of socialism circulated widely, inspiring Indian nationalists .

The advent of Mahatma Gandhi :

The advent of Mahatma Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi emerged as a mass leader Gandhiji , aged 46 , arrived in India in 1915 from South Africa. led Indians in that country in non-violent marches against racist restrictions. Mahatma Gandhi spent his first year in India travelling throughout the country. understanding the people, their needs and the overall situation. earliest interventions : Champaran, Kheda and Ahmadabad IN Ahmadabad he led a successful millworkers strike in 1918

Places where satyagraha took place:

Places where satyagraha took place

The Rowlatt Satyagraha :

The Rowlatt Satyagraha 1919- Gandhiji gave a call for satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act. The Act curbed fundamental rights. Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammad Ali Jinnah and felt that the government has no right to restrict peoples basic freedoms. criticized the Act as” devilish” . Gandhi asked the Indian people to observe 6 April 1919 as a day of non-violent opposition to this Act. Satyagraha Sabhas were set up.

MOHAMMAD ALI JINNAH:

MOHAMMAD ALI JINNAH

MAHATMA GHANDHI & MOHAMMAD ALI JINNAH:

MAHATMA GHANDHI & MOHAMMAD ALI JINNAH

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The Rowlatt Satyagraha = first all-India struggle against the British government although it was largely restricted to cities. In April 1919 there were a number of demonstration and hartals in the country the government used brutal measures to suppress them. The Jallianwalla Bagh atrocities, inflicted by General Dyer in Amritsar on Baisakhi day ( 13 April).

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6 April 1919. Mass processions on the streets became a common feature during the national movement.

General Dyer:

General Dyer

Jallianwalla bagh massacre:

Jallianwalla bagh massacre

Jallianwalla Bagh & The Martyr's‘ well at Jallianwalla Bagh:

Jallianwalla Bagh & The Martyr's‘ well at Jallianwalla Bagh

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Rabindranath Tagore expressed the pain and anger of the country by renouncing his knighthood. During the Rowlatt Satyagraha- participants tried to ensure that Hindus and Muslims were united. Mahatma Gandhi always wanted- Hindus and Muslims support each other in any just cause

Rabindranath Tagore & Rabindranath Tagore with Elbert Einstein :

Rabindranath Tagore & Rabindranath Tagore with Elbert Einstein

Khilafat agitation and the Non Cooperation Movement:

Khilafat agitation and the Non Cooperation Movement In 1920 - British imposed a harsh treaty on the Turkish Sultan or Khalifa. People were furious about the Jallianwalla Massacre. Indian Muslims - Khalifa be allowed to retain control over Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile ottoman empire. Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali - wished to initiate a full-fledged Non-Cooperation Movement . Gandhiji supported their call & urged the Congress to campaigns against “ Punjab wrongs” ( Jallianwalla Massacre ),

Ali brothers:

Ali brothers Shaukat Ali & Mohammad Ali

The Non-Cooperation Movement gained momentum -1921-22:

The Non-Cooperation Movement gained momentum -1921-22 students left government controlled schools and colleges lawyers such a Motilal Nehru , CR Das , C Rajagopalachari and Asaf Ali gave up their practices. titles were surrendered. legislatures boycotted. public bonfires of foreign clothes. The imports of foreign cloth fell drastically between 1920 and 1922.

MOTILAL NEHRU:

MOTILAL NEHRU

Chittaranjan Das biography:

Date of birth : 1870-11-05 Date of death : 1925-06-16 Birthplace : Bikrampur, Dhaka (now in Bangladesh) Nationality : Indian Category : Politics Last modified : 2010-11-05 12:18:11 Credited as : Lawyer, major figure in the Indian independence movement, the mayor of Calcutta Corporation Chittaranjan Das biography

C.RAJGOPALACHARI:

C.RAJGOPALACHARI

Non-cooperation movement by the boycott of foreign goods:

Non-cooperation movement by the boycott of foreign goods

People’s initiatives :

People’s initiatives people resisted British rule non-violently. People interpreted Gandhiji’s call. protested in ways that were not in accordance with his ideas. people linked their movements to local grievances.

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In Kheda, Gujrat- Patidar peasants organized non-violent campaigns. In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu- liquor shops were picketed. In Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh , tribals and poor peasants staged a number of “ forest satyagrahas ”- sent their cattle into forests without paying grazing fee. Tribals were protesting. Tribals believed that Gandhiji would get their taxes reduced. Forest regulations abolished. peasants proclaimed swaraj and believed that “Gandhi Raj” was to be established.

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In Sind ( now in Pakistan), Muslim traders and peasants were very enthusiastic about the Khilafat call. In Bengal too, the Khilafat Non-Cooperation alliances gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement.

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In Punjab, Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to remove corrupt Mahants – supported by the British form their gurdwaras. In Assam,- tea garden labourers, shouting “Gandhi Maharaja ki Jai” demanded a big increase in their wages. left the British owned plantations amidstration. declared that they were following Gandhiji’s wish . The Assamese Vaishnava songs of the period the reference to Krishna was substituted by “Gandhi Raja”

recapitulation:

recapitulation Q.1: Why was Dissatisfaction with British rule? Arms act was passed in 1878, disallowing Indians from possessing arms. Vernacular press act was passed- to silence those who were critical about govt. .

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Q.2: what were the demands of congress? A greater voice for Indians. High positions for Indians. (civil service examinations). Legislative Councils to be made more representative. give more power . reduction of revenue. cut in military expenditure. more funds for irrigation.

Q.2 what were the main Ideas on which the swadeshi movement stressed on?:

Q.2 what were the main Ideas on which the swadeshi movement stressed on? the ideas of self – help. swadeshi enterprise. national education. use of Indian languages. fight for swaraj. boycott of British institutions and goods .

Q.4 what were the situations created by the world war I?:

Q.4 what were the situations created by the world war I? huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Government of India increased taxes Increased military expenditure demands for was supplies led to a sharp rise in prices Created difficulties for the common people. business groups reaped fabulous profits from the war. Indian industries expanded

Q.5 who partitioned Bengal?:

Q.5 who partitioned Bengal? Viceroy Curzon partitioned Bengal in 1905

Q.6 which was the biggest province in British India?:

Q.6 which was the biggest province in British India? Bengal

Q.7 which were the places where the satyagraha movement held?:

Q.7 which were the places where the satyagraha movement held? Kheda, Gujarat Champaran, Bihar Amritsar, Punjab

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