The Legislative Branch: The Legislative Branch Legislative Branch Review: Legislative Branch Review Function: Make the Laws Congressional Joint Powers Levy and collect taxes Raise and maintain military Grant statehood Control national lands Regulate interstate trade Naturalize citizens Declare war Control making of currency Legislative Branch Review: Legislative Branch Review 3. Members Senate 1. Qualifications a. 30 Years Old b. American citizen for 9 years c. Resident of state elected 2. Method of Selection – Election by the people 3. Term of office – 6 years 4. Members per state – 2 5. Powers reserved for Senate only a. Confirm Presidential appointments b. Approve/reject treaties c. Jury for impeachment trial Legislative Branch Review: Legislative Branch Review B. House of Representatives Qualifications 25 years old U.S. Citizen for 7 years Resident of state elected Method of Selection – Election by the people Term of Office – 2 years Members per State – Based on population – 435 total Powers reserved for the House only Originates money bills (taxes) Begins impeachment process Elects President if Electoral College fails to do so The U.S. Congress in Brief: The U.S. Congress in Brief Bicameral Senate 100 members Six years More prestigious House 435 2 years Reapportioned after each census Congressional Duties: Congressional Duties 1. legislatures 2. Committee members 3. Representatives of their constituents 4. politicians Officers of the Legislative Branch: Officers of the Legislative Branch Speaker of the House Currently: John Boehner from Ohio Presiding officer of the House Job: acknowledges speakers, signs bills, appoints committees, calls a vote. Officers of the Legislative Branch: Officers of the Legislative Branch President of the Senate- V.P. Less power Presiding officer but may not speak or debate President pro tempore Resides in V.P.’s absence Elected by the Senate Majority Party Currently: Patrick Leahy (D) Officers of the Legislative Branch: Officers of the Legislative Branch Floor leaders: majority and minority in the House and Senate Legislative strategists Committee Chairmen Heads of standing committees Chosen by majority Usually by seniority rule Committees in Congress: Committees in Congress Standing committee: permanent groups which all similar bills could be sent. (Ex. Budget committee) Select committee- a special group set up for a specific purpose for a limited time. (ex. Senate Watergate Committee) Joint Committees- members from both houses. Committees in Congress: Committees in Congress Informal groupings- Black caucus, democratic study group, House Republican study group, pro-Life caucus, etc. Conference Committee- temporary joint body to iron out different versions of a measure How does a Bill become a law?: How does a Bill become a law? Bills - proposed laws, or drafts of laws presented to the House or Senate for enactment. Two types: Public - measure applying to the nation as a whole- (tax bills) Private -only apply to certain persons or places rather than to the nation generally. How does a Bill become a law?: How does a Bill become a law? Only members may introduce bills to the house. The clerk of the house numbers each bill and gives it a short title The bill is referred to a standing committee, where most bills die. Discharge petition : enables members to force a bill that has been in committee 30 days. How does a Bill become a law?: How does a Bill become a law? Subcommittees: divisions of existing committees, holds public hearings or may take a junket, or trip to an area affected by a measure. Committee’s choices “do pass” Pigeonhole: refuse to report Support with unfavorable recommendation. Report a committee bill How does a Bill become a law?: How does a Bill become a law? The House Debates the bill The House votes on the bill Amendments can be added during this time. Voting is now electronic Same process in the Senate If versions are the same it goes to the president. If versions are different it goes to a conference committee. PowerPoint Presentation: Filibuster: an attempt to “talk a bill to death.” in the senate. Record: Senator Strom Thurmond: held the floor for 24 hours in an attempt to kill the Civil Rights Act of 1957.