Weed ID

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Weed Identification MDS707a MDS707a

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This material was prepared by Ken McPheeters, Information Technology and Communication Services, and David Pike, Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Photographs and accompanying text by authors. Music clip by Richard Bryant, Joe Gershen, and Gary Wagner and copyrighted by Aris Entertainment, Inc., 1991-1993. The illustrated weeds are on the weed identification list of the Illinois Association of Vocational Agriculture Teachers Crop Career Development Event. ITCS Instructional Materials 1401 South Maryland Drive Urbana, IL 61801 (217) 244-3906 FAX (217) 333-0005 http://www.aces.uiuc.edu/ITCS/IM Copyright © 2001 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. ITCS Instructional Materials College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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Barnyardgrass Bitter nightshade Black nightshade Broadleaf plantain Buckhorn plantain Bull thistle Burdock Canada thistle Carpetweed Cheat Chicory Cocklebur Common chickweed Common mallow Common milkweed Common ragweed Curled dock Daisy fleabane Dandelion Fall panicum Field pennycress Flower-of-an-hour Foxtail barley Giant foxtail Giant ragweed Goosegrass Green foxtail Hedge bindweed Hemp dogbane Hemp (Marijuana) Honeyvine milkweed Horsenettle Horseweed (Marestail) Ivyleaf morningglory Jimsonweed Johnsongrass Kochia Ladysthumb smartweed Lambsquarters Large crabgrass Musk thistle Peppergrass Pigweeds (Redroot, Smooth) Prickly sida Purslane Quackgrass Red sorrel Shattercane Stinkgrass Tall morningglory Velvetleaf Waterhemp Wild carrot Wild garlic Wild mustard Wild parsnip Wild sunflower Woolly cupgrass Yarrow Yellow foxtail Yellow nutsedge Yellow rocket Yellow woodsorrel Click on the name of a weed to go to photographs OR use the navigation buttons to move through the presentation. QUIT Back one frame Forward one frame Table of contents Weed descriptions

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Barnyardgrass

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Bitter nightshade

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Black nightshade

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Broadleaf plantain

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Buckhorn plantain

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Bull thistle

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Burdock

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Canada thistle

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Carpetweed

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Cheat

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Chicory

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Cocklebur

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Common chickweed

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Common mallow

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Common milkweed

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Common ragweed

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Curled dock

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Daisy fleabane

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Dandelion

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Fall panicum

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Field pennycress

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Barnyardgrass Flower-of-an-hour

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Barnyardgrass Foxtail barley

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Barnyardgrass Giant foxtail

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Barnyardgrass Giant ragweed

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Barnyardgrass Goosegrass

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Barnyardgrass Green foxtail

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Barnyardgrass Hedge bindweed

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Barnyardgrass Hemp dogbane

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Barnyardgrass Hemp (Marijuana)

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Barnyardgrass Honeyvine milkweed

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Barnyardgrass Horsenettle

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Barnyardgrass Ivyleaf morningglory

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Barnyardgrass Horseweed (Marestail)

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Barnyardgrass Jimsonweed

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Barnyardgrass Johnsongrass

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Barnyardgrass Kochia

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Barnyardgrass Ladysthumb smartweed

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Barnyardgrass Lambsquarters

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Barnyardgrass Large crabgrass

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Barnyardgrass Musk thistle

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Barnyardgrass Peppergrass

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Barnyardgrass Pigweeds (Redroot, Smooth)

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Barnyardgrass Prickly sida

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Barnyardgrass Purslane

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Barnyardgrass Quackgrass

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Barnyardgrass Red sorrel

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Barnyardgrass Shattercane

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Barnyardgrass Stinkgrass

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Barnyardgrass Tall morningglory

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Barnyardgrass Velvetleaf

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Barnyardgrass Waterhemp

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Barnyardgrass Wild carrot

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Barnyardgrass Wild garlic

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Barnyardgrass Wild mustard

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Barnyardgrass Wild parsnip

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Barnyardgrass Wild sunflower

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Barnyardgrass Woolly cupgrass

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Barnyardgrass Yarrow

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Barnyardgrass Yellow foxtail

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Barnyardgrass Yellow nutsedge

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Barnyardgrass Yellow rocket

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Barnyardgrass Yellow woodsorrel

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Barnyardgrass Annual grass, reproducing by seed Ligule is absent Sheaths are flattened; smooth; purple-tinged base Blades are smooth; finely veined

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Bitter nightshade Perennial, reproducing by seeds and rooting of prostrate stems Leaves are dark green to purplish heart-shaped; 2 to 5 inches long, with one to several basal lobes or leaflets; alternate with medium length petioles Stems are slender; vinelike; mildly woody; prostrate or twining on low vegetation; two to 10 feet long Flowers are purple; star-shaped with prominent yellow or orange anthers; produce bright red berries containing many round, flattened seeds; toxic

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Black nightshade Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are alternate; ovate to oval with pointed tip; wavy-toothed margins; smooth to sparsely hairy above; purple-tinged on bottom surface Petioles are sparsely hairy; reddish to purple Stems are branching; weak; mostly smooth to slightly hairy

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Broadleaf plantain Perennial, reproducing by seed Leaves are basal; ovate; 3 to 7 inches long with wavy margins narrowing abruptly to petiole with several veins running length of leaf Flowers are small and inconspicuous, forming on a dense, elongated spike inflorescence; located at the end of a stem 5 to 15 inches long

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Buckhorn plantain Perennial, reproducing by seed Leaves are basal; long ovate or lanceolate; 4 to 12 inches long with several veins running length of leaf Flowers form on a dense, cylindrical spike at the end of erect, leafless stems 4 to 10 inches long

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Bull thistle Biennial, reproducing by seed Leaves have spines on lobes of leaves; are densely hairy; after stem elongates, leaf bases run down stem Stems do not elongate the first year; thereafter, 3 to 5 feet tall; branched; somewhat hairy with spines

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Burdock Biennial, reproducing by seed only Leaves are large, heart-shaped, hairy in basal crown the first year and alternate on erect coarse stem; 3 to 10 feet tall the second year Flowers are purple-red disc flowers surrounded by hooked bracts which later form a burr about ½ inch in diameter

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Canada thistle Perennial, spreading by seeds and rhizomes Leaves are alternate; clasping; thick with bristly hairs on upper and lower surfaces; margins slightly lobed and wavy with each lobe ending in a sharp spine Petioles are absent Stems are hollow; grooved; branching at top becoming increasingly hairy Root system extends several feet deep and horizontally; frequent new shoots; fleshy

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Carpetweed Annual, reproducing by seed only Leaves are small; dark green; lanceolate; widest near apex, laying flat; 5 or 6 each in a circle radiating from stem joints Stems prostrate; mat-forming; radiating from root crown; not rooting at nodes Flowers very small; white; five petaled in clusters of two to five on stalks from leaf axils

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Cheat (also known as chess) Annual or winter annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are 1/8 to 1/4 inch wide; sparsely hairy on stems 10 to 30 inches tall Flowers are borne in a panicle inflorescence; seeds bear short (1/8 to 1/4 inch) beard or none at all

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Chicory Perennial, reproducing by seed Leaves are oblanceolate; toothed or pinnately parted, with short petioles along branches and forming rosette at base; upper leaves become reduced, sessile, and often entire Stems are smooth; erect; branched; 1 to 6 feet tall Flowers are bright blue or purple, sometimes white; ray flowers 1 to 1 1/2 inches across; located at branch ends or axils of much-reduced upper leaves

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Cocklebur Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves -- first pair opposite, later alternate; rough; triangular in shape, with irregularly toothed margins Petioles are long; hairy; purplish Stems are rough-hairy; ridged; spotted

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Common chickweed Annual or winter annual, reproducing by seed or creeping stems which root at nodes Leaves are small; 1 to 1 1/2 inches long; opposite; petioled; upper leaves lack petioles; broadly ovate; smooth; pointed at tips Stems are creeping or ascending; branched; low and spreading 4 to 12 inches high Flowers are white with five deeply notched petals

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Common mallow Annual or biennial, reproducing by seed Leaves are long-petioled; rounded; 3/4 to 3 1/2 inches across with heart-shaped base; toothed or slightly lobed Stems are spreading, semi-erect Flowers are small; white to lavender; with 5 petals producing a button-like fruit

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Common milkweed Perennial, spreading by seeds and rhizomes Leaves are opposite; thick; elliptical; entire margins with pointed tip; prominent, whitish midvein; lower surface covered with short, white hairs Petioles are extended partially around stem to form a ridge Stems are covered with short, downy hairs; exude milky juice when broken; usually no branching Root system is coarse; wide-spreading

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Common ragweed Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are opposite at base of plant, alternate above; hairy; deeply and irregularly lobed giving a lacy appearance Petioles are hairy; grooved; widen into a V-shape at the stem Stems are usually much branched and densely hairy

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Curled dock Perennial, reproducing by seed Leaves mostly basal; short-petioled; lanceolate; 6 to 12 inches long with wavy or curly margins Stems are smooth; erect; 1 to 4 feet tall single or in groups from root crown Flowers are small; appearing in dense spike-like terminal or axillary clusters; lacking petals; turning reddish-brown at maturity

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Daisy fleabane (also known as rough fleabane) Annual, winter annual or biennial, reproducing by seeds True leaves variable; lower leaves ovate; upper leaves lanceolate; often tapering to form somewhat winged petiole Stems 1 to 3 feet tall; hairy; clustered; branching at upper part Flowers ½ to 1 inch across; white to lavender ray petals surrounding a yellow disc

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Dandelion Perennial, reproducing from seed Leaves are dark green; deeply lobed; elongated; 3 to 10 inches long forming rosette from root crown Stems are lacking Flowers are bright yellow ray flowers; 1 to 2 inches across; borne atop elongated, hollow stalks 1 to 24 inches tall

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Fall panicum Annual grass, reproducing by seed Ligule has a fringe of hairs Sheaths are smooth to hairy at first near soil surface; later smooth with membranous margins; slightly purplish near base Blades are hairy on the underside at first, later smooth; dull above and glossy below; prominent midvein

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Field pennycress Annual or winter annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are alternate; simple; toothed; may lack petioles Stems are erect; 4 to 20 inches long; smooth; simple or branching above Flowers are small, white, with 4 petals forming at the ends of the branches in racemes which lengthen greatly at maturity; seed pod is flat, circular, deeply notched at the top; each pod contains several seeds

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Flower-of-an-hour Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are alternate; first two leaves toothed; subsequent leaves deeply lobed with few hairs on upper leaf surface and densely hairy on lower leaf surface Petioles are moderate in length; hairy Leaves are hairy; much branched

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Foxtail barley (Squirreltail is a very common related grass with very similar characteristics) Perennial, reproducing by seed Leaves alternate; smooth sheaths; blades 1/8 to 1/4 inch wide; rough upper surface Stems erect 1 to 2 feet in height Flowers borne in a spike inflorescence 2 to 5 inches long; nodding with soft yellow-green or purplish bristles about 2 inches long

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Giant foxtail Annual, reproducing by seed Ligule is a fringe of hairs Sheaths are round to slightly flattened; sparsely hairy with hairy margins Blades are short and densely hairy above; sparsely hairy to smooth below

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Giant ragweed Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are opposite; rough; hairy; deeply lobed with usually 3, sometimes 5 lobes; saw-toothed margins Petioles are grooved; winged toward the stem; rough-hairy Stems are coarse; rough; 4 to 12 feet in height

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Goosegrass Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves smooth and 3 to 12 inches long Stems smooth; prostrate; sometimes upright six inches to two feet long; grows in tufts Flowers are small on 3- to 5-inch spikes spreading finger-like from the top of stem; 3 to 6 spikes per stem

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Green foxtail Annual, reproducing by seed Ligule is a fringe of hairs Sheaths are round to slightly flattened; sparsely hairy to smooth with hairy margins; reddish base Blades are mostly smooth above and below; rough margins; finely veined

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Hedge bindweed Perennial, spreading by seeds and rhizomes Leaves are alternate; larger than field bindweed; arrowhead-shaped, usually with pointed tip and large basal lobes Petioles are long; smooth; indented in leaf Stems are smooth; twining or trailing Root system is extensive but relatively shallow

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Hemp dogbane Perennial, spreading by seeds and rhizomes Leaves are opposite; entire; elliptical with a rounded wedge at the base and narrowing to blunt point at the tip; smaller than common milkweed Petioles are short to nearly absent Stems are smooth with reddish tinge; woody base; upper portion with ascending branches to give bushy appearance; exude milky juice when broken Root system is extensive and deep, sending up new plants at intervals

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Hemp (Marijuana) Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are palmate with 5 to 9 leaflets deeply notched Stems are 2 to 10 feet tall; coarse; somewhat grooved; rough and hairy; usually bushy unless crowded Flowers are of two kinds—male and female, borne on separate plants, all flowers lack petals and are borne in clusters from the axils of the leaves; pollen-producing flowers are borne in the axils of the upper leaves; male plants decline after shedding pollen; female plants remain robust until frost

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Honeyvine milkweed Perennial, reproducing by seeds and rhizomes Leaves are opposite; smooth; oblong to heart-shaped with pointed tip; distinct venation Petioles are long; covered with short hairs Stems are smooth; slender; twining; without milky sap Root system is extensive, succulent taproot; lateral rhizomes

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Horsenettle Perennial, spreading by seeds and rhizomes Leaves are alternate; with dense hairs; dark green on upper surface; later leaf midribs and petioles with spines; margins undulate to sparsely toothed Petioles are short; hairy Stems are green to purple; erect; dense hairs; usually crooked at nodes

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Horseweed (Marestail) Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves -- first leaves alternate; entire, mostly smooth; later leaves becoming hairy; serrated margins; lanceolate Petioles are short to moderate in length; clasping; hairy on upper surface Stems stout; erect; 1 to 6 feet tall; unbranched at base

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Ivyleaf morningglory Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are alternate; hairy; 3-lobed and ivy-shaped Petioles are long; hairy with reddish tint Stems are hairy; twining or trailing on the ground

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Jimsonweed Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are alternate; large; smooth; ovate with irregularly toothed edges; distinctive rank odor when crushed Petioles are long; pale green to purple; may have short hairs Stems are smooth; thick; branching widely on upper part

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Johnsongrass Perennial grass, reproducing by seed and large rhizomes Leaves are simple; smooth; alternate; 6 to 20 inches long; ½ to 1 1/2 inches wide Stems are erect; stout; 1 1/2 to 6 feet tall Flowers are borne in panicles that are large, purplish, and hairy

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Kochia Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are alternate; simple; hairy; 1 to 2 inches long Petioles -- none Stems are smooth; green; branched; height variable up to 6 feet

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Ladysthumb smartweed Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are narrow; pointed; have smooth margins; usually with dark spot in the middle of the leaf; short petioles Stems smooth; branched; sometimes hairy; often with clear membrane at leaf nodes Flowers are pink or purplish in dense erect, terminal and axillary spikes

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Lambsquarters Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves -- first two opposite, later alternate; ovate to triangular; smooth; usually white-mealy coated, especially on younger leaves; wavy-toothed margins Petioles are short; round; sometimes red-tinged; covered with white-mealy particles Stems are smooth; grooved, often with red or light green striations

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Large crabgrass Annual grass, reproducing by seed Ligule is membranous; medium; jagged margins Sheaths are densely hairy; stems rooting at lower nodes Blades are hairy; margins often wrinkled

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Musk thistle Biennial, reproducing by seed Leaves smooth; light colored; very spiny margins; after stem elongation, leaf margins extend down stem Stems do not elongate in first year; thereafter, erect and spiny with spiny wings; 3 to 6 feet tall; lower portion branched

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Peppergrass Annual or winter annual, reproducing by seed Leaves lanceolate to linear; coarsely toothed; usually lacking petioles Stems branched; 6 to 18 inches high; hairless or with fine hairs Flowers small, white, four-petaled; borne on racemes that bloom constantly so they may show flowers on top and seed pods below

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Pigweeds (Redroot, Smooth) Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are alternate; ovate to oval, usually with a notched tip; prominently veined; leaf tissue between veins appearing puffy and rough; younger leaves pink-tinged on bottom surface; purplish midvein Petioles are green to pink-tinged; long; grooved on upper surface with appressed hairs Stems are rough; hairy; vertically ridged; branching widely if not crowded; pinkish, turning red below soil surface

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Prickly sida Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves alternate; oblong; sparsely hairy; saw-toothed margins; yellow-green Petioles are long; covered with short, gland-tipped hairs Stems are branching widely; softly hairy; bearing 2 to 3 short, blunt spiny projections below each node

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Purslane Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are oblanceolate; fleshy; maroon on edges; opposite; smooth Petioles are short; fleshy; flattened on upper surface Stems are juicy; smooth; often reddish; prostrate and ascending toward ends

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Quackgrass Perennial, spreading by seeds and rhizomes Ligule is membranous; short Sheaths have lower parts with short hairs; upper parts smooth Blades are rough above; sparsely hairy to smooth below; constriction often showing near tip; auricles present--a slender, clawlike structure at the base of the blade and clasping the stem Rhizomes are long; slender; sharp; white

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Red sorrel Perennial, spreading by seeds and creeping rhizomes Leaves arrow-shaped; 1 to 3 inches long; smooth; acid to taste Stems 6 to 8 inches high; slender and upright; branched at tip Flowers yellow to red; borne on raceme near top of plant; form 3-sided seeds

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Shattercane Annual grass, reproducing by seed Ligule is long; membranous; apical margin jagged with short hairs Sheaths are smooth to rough with membranous margins Blades are finely veined; smooth to sparsely hairy; vigorous growth; bigger than most annuals

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Stinkgrass Annual, reproducing by seed Sheaths smooth except for hairs on upper portion Blades smooth; 1/16 to 5/16 inch wide; plant has disagreeable odor Flowers borne in branched panicles with many spikelets 1/4 to 5/8 long

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Tall morningglory Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are alternate; hairy; broadly heart-shaped with pointed tip Petioles are long; hairy; dull green to reddish tint Stems are hairy; twining or trailing on the ground

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Velvetleaf Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are alternate; heart-shaped with pointed tip; large; fine-toothed margins; soft, velvety hairy surface Petioles are round; covered with short, velvety hairs Stems are covered with short, velvety hairs

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Waterhemp Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are more elongated than pigweed; no hairs on leaves; no notch on tip Petioles are green to red; hairless; long Stems are smooth and vertically ridged Seed head is less compact and more branched than most pigweeds; the several species of waterhemp are difficult to distinguish

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Wild carrot Biennial, reproducing by seed Leaves alternate; compound; finely pinnately divided; about 5 inches long Stems erect; hairy; stout and branched at top Flowers small, white, five petaled; located in umbels at ends of the branches

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Wild garlic Perennial, reproducing from seed, aerial bulblets and underground bulbs Leaves are slender; round; hollow; attached at the bottom half of the stem Stems are 1 to 3 feet tall; smooth and waxy Flowers are small, greenish-white; borne on short stems above aerial bulblets at top of stem

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Wild mustard Annual or winter annual, reproducing by seed Leaves vary in length; 2 to 8 inches long; 1 to 4 inches wide, larger at bottom; lower leaves irregularly lobed, toothed, petioled, and with bristly hairs; upper leaves smaller, often not lobed, alternate, and with short or absent petioles Stems erect; branched near top; with a few bristly hairs Flowers bright yellow; four-petaled; clustered at ends of branches

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Wild parsnip Biennial, reproducing by seed Leaves alternate; pinnately compound; have sawtoothed edges Stems (second year) erect; hairy; grooved; 2 to 5 feet tall Flowers small; yellow; five petaled; located in umbels at the top of stems and branches

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Wild sunflower Annual, reproducing by seed Leaves are alternate; simple; hairy; saw-tooth margins Petioles are short to moderate in length Stems are erect; very hairy; 2 to 10 feet tall Flowers are composed of yellow ray flowers surrounding brown or reddish-brown disk flowers; flower heads 1 to 5 inches in diameter

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Woolly cupgrass Annual grass, reproducing by seed Ligule has a fringe of hairs Sheaths are covered with very short, dense hairs Leaves are covered with very short, dense hairs; one margin tends to be wrinkled Inflorescences of several racemes; woolly with hairs; spikelets in two rows on one side of rachis

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Yarrow Perennial, reproducing by seeds and underground rhizomes Leaves soft; hairy; finely divided; fernlike Stems 1 to 2 feet tall; branching at the top; covered with gray-green hairs; multiple stems may rise from each crown Flowers borne as small, white ray flowers surrounding yellow disc flowers in flat-topped clusters at the ends of branches

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Yellow foxtail Annual grass, reproducing by seed Ligule is a fringe of hairs Sheaths are flattened; smooth; purple to reddish base Blades are smooth except for long hairs near ligule on upper surface Stems erect; 1 to 2 feet tall

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Yellow nutsedge Perennial, reproducing by seeds and tubers Stems are erect; triangular in cross section Leaves are 3-ranked; smooth and shiny; basal; greenish-yellow; triangle-shaped in cross section Rhizomes are short with scales or ridges; tubers at ends Seeds yellowish brown and 3-angled Yellow nutsedge is a persistent weed, especially in low areas

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Yellow rocket Perennial, biennial or winter annual, reproducing by seed Leaves pinnately divided; basal leaves have larger terminal lobe, are 2 to 8 inches long and form a dense basal rosette; stem leaves become progressively shorter with top leaves 1 inch long and deeply lobed Stems are numerous and grow from a crown; erect, smooth and angular or ridged, branched near top; 1 to 2 feet tall Flowers bright lemon-yellow; four-petaled; located in spike-like racemes at the end of each branch

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Yellow woodsorrel Perennial or annual, reproducing by seed Leaves have long petioles; divided into three heart-shaped leaflets Stems are weak, prostrate or semi-erect; may root at joints; smooth; hairy; 4 to 18 inches tall; often multi-branched Flowers small; yellow; five petaled; occurring in clusters

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The End ITCS Instructional Materials College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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