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Conclusion Research Need References Introduction : Introduction Ultra sound utilizes interaction between high-frequency sound waves and matter to obtain information about the composition, structure and dimensions of materials through which it propagates. Choice of frequency : Choice of frequency Radar wavelength = Speed of light / frequency l = c / f Frequency 6.3 GHz wavelength l = 47.5 mm Frequency 26 GHz wavelength l = 11.5 mm High frequency: shorter wavelength narrower beam angle more focused signal ability to measure smaller vessels with more flexible mounting 47.5mm 11.5mm Low frequency: longer wavelength wider beam angle less focused signal ability to measure in vessels with difficult application variables Historical background : Historical background In 1927 when a paper was published entitled ‘The chemical effects of high frequency sound waves: a preliminary survey’, which described the development of power ultrasound for use in a range of processing including emulsification and surface cleaning (Richards and Loomis, 1927). In recent years food technologists have discovered that it is possible to employ a more powerful form of ultrasound (>5W/cm2) at a lower frequency (generally around 40 kHz). By the 1960s the uses of power ultrasound in the processing industries were well accepted and this interest has continued to develop (Abramov, 1998; Mason, 2000; Mason and Lorimer, 2002. Frequency ranges of sound. : Frequency ranges of sound. Two distinct categories: high frequency low energy diagnostic ultrasound in the MHz range and low frequency high energy power ultrasound Slide 9: Diagnostic ultrasound is mainly used as an analytical technique for quality assurance, process control and non-destructive inspection, which has been applied to determine food concentration, viscosity, composition, etc., to measure flow rate and flow level and to inspect egg shells and food packages (Floros and Liang, 1994; McClements, 1995; Mason et al., 1996; Mason, 1998). Power ultrasound generation and equipment: : Power ultrasound generation and equipment: Electricity driven ultrasonic system, which is most commonly used in the food processing industry. Basic components : power generator the transducers (converting the electrical power to mechanical vibrations). Two major types of ultrasound transducers: magnetostrictive transducers piezoelectric ones. Magnetostrictive transducer (adapted from Fuchs, 1999). : Magnetostrictive transducer (adapted from Fuchs, 1999). Provides a large driving force because the system is of an extremely robust construction (Mason, 1998). However, about 40 per cent of the electrical energy will be lost as heat and thus external cooling is required. Its maximum operating frequency is restricted to 100 kHz (Mason, 1998). Piezoelectric transducer (adapted from Fuchs, 1999). : Piezoelectric transducer (adapted from Fuchs, 1999). Higher electro mechanical conversion (Hamonic and Decarpigny, 1988). They are over 95 per cent electrically efficient and can be operated over the whole ultrasonic range (Hamonic and Decarpigny, 1988). Ultrasonic processing equipments : Ultrasonic processing equipments [A] Laboratory scale Ultrasonic bath. Ultrasonic probe system Air-borne power ultrasonic system (adapted from Gallego-Juarez, 1998). : Air-borne power ultrasonic system (adapted from Gallego-Juarez, 1998). Large Scale: There are essentially two types of large scale plant: batch and flow types. : Large Scale: There are essentially two types of large scale plant: batch and flow types. Batch systems Batch systems will generally be based upon the ultrasonic cleaning bath using the whole bath as the reactor. Examples can be found in cleaning and decontamination of equipment, e.g. in the cleaning of chicken shackles to avoid cross-contamination (Quartly-Watson, 1998). Flow systems : Flow systems One of the oldest devices used to achieve emulsification through cavitation is the liquid whistle. Process material is forced under pressure generated by a powerful pump through an orifice from which it emerges and expands into a mixing chamber ,with no moving parts, other than a pump, the system is rugged and durable (Moser et al., 2001). Ultrasonic pulse-echo experiment: : Ultrasonic pulse-echo experiment: Schematic diagram of the experimental configuration for an ultrasonic pulse-echo experiment. Slide 18: An ultrasonic pulse travels back and forth across the measurement cell so that a series of echoes is observed on the oscilloscope. Slide 19: Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Level Measurement : Ultrasonic Level Measurement Ultrasonic level measurement Time of Flight Top mounted Solids and liquids applications Non-contact ULTRASONIC is virtually unaffected by the following process conditions: Change is product density (spg) Change in dielectric constant (dk) Ultrasonic Level Measurement – How it works : Ultrasonic Level Measurement – How it works Time of Flight Technology Short ultrasonic impulses emitted from transducer Bursts are created from electrical energy applied to piezeo electric crystal inside the transducer The transducer creates sound waves (mechanical energy) With longer measuring ranges a lower frequency and higher amplitude are needed to produce sound waves that can travel farther The longer the measuring range the larger the transducer must be Ultrasonic Level Technology – Advantages : Ultrasonic Level Technology – Advantages Can be mounted in plastic stilling wells Narrow beam angles minimize effect of obstructions Swivel flange available for applications with angles of repose Familiar technology throughout the industry, therefore, often a trusted technology throughout the industry Cost-effective Ultrasonic Level Technology – When to use it : Ultrasonic Level Technology – When to use it Vessels with products whose characteristics remain constant Water Bulk solids Storage Vessels Where repeatability is not critical Typical Accuracy +/- 5-10 mm Advantages : : Advantages : Used to monitor food processing operations. Capable of rapid and precise measurements. Non-intrusive and non-invasive. Applied to systems which are concentrated and optically opaque. Relatively inexpensive and it can easily be adapted for on-line measurements. Slide 25: Destruction of micro-organisms by ultrasound has been studied with a view toward pasteurization of milk, stabilization of wine, and as an alternative supplement to traditional sterilization methods (Arena, 1979; Shoh, 1988; Villamiel & De Jong, 2000). Slide 26: Industrial applications include texture, viscosity and concentrations measurements of many solid or fluid foods; composition determination of eggs, meats, fruits and vegetables, dairy and others products; thickness, flow level and temperature measurements for monitoring and control of several processes; and non-destructive inspection of whole fruits and vegetables, egg shells and food packages (Floros & Liang, 1994; Mizrach, Galilli, & Rosenhouse, 1994; Shoh, 1988). Some uses of power ultrasound in food processing : Some uses of power ultrasound in food processing Mechanical effects crystallization of fats, sugars etc degassing destruction of foams extraction of flavourings filtration and drying freezing mixing and homogenization precipitation of airborne powders tenderization of meat Chemical and biochemical effects bactericidal action effluent treatment modification of growth of living cells alteration of enzyme activity sterilization of equipment Ultrasound In The Food Industry : Ultrasound In The Food Industry disintegration of cells extracting (extract intracellular components or obtain cell-free bacterial enzyme) activation (acceleration) of an enzyme reaction in liquid foods acceleration of fermentation mixing homogenizing dispersion of a dry powder in a liquid emulsifying of oil/fat in a liquid stream spraying degassing inspection, e.g. in the beverage industry deactivation of enzymes microbial inactivation (preservation) crystallisation meat processing stimulation of living cells enhanced oxidation Ultrasonic Disintegration of Cell Structures : Ultrasonic Disintegration of Cell Structures Used for the extraction of intracellular materials, e.g. starch from the cell matrix. Ultrasonic disintegration can be easily tested in any scale: lab scale for 1mL to approx. 5L bench top scale at approx. 0.1 to 20L/min production scale starting at 20L/min Protein and Enzyme Extraction : Protein and Enzyme Extraction Extraction of enzymes and proteins stored in cells and sub cellular particles is a unique and effective application of high-intensity ultrasound (Kim 1989), as the extraction of organic compounds contained within the body of plants and seeds by a solvent can be significantly improved. Has a potential benefit in the extraction and isolation of novel potentially bioactive components. Extraction of lipids and proteins : Extraction of lipids and proteins Extraction of lipids and proteins from plant seeds, such as soybeans (e.g. flour or defatted soybeans) or other oil seeds. In this case, the destruction of the cell walls facilitates the pressing (cold or hot) and thereby reduces the residual oil or fat in the pressing cake. Applicable to: Citrus oil from fruits, oil extraction from ground mustard, peanut, herb oil (Echinacea), canola, soy, corn. Liberation of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins : Liberation of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins From grape and berry matrix, in particular from bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) and black currants (Ribes nigrum) into juice, was investigated by VTT Biotechnology, Finland (MAXFUN EU-Project) using an ultrasonic processor UIP2000 after thawing, mashing and enzyme incubation. Microbial and Enzyme Inactivation : Microbial and Enzyme Inactivation Used mainly in the microbial and enzyme inactivation in fruit juices and sauces. Thermal treatment can cause undesirable alterations of sensory attributes, i.e. texture, flavor, color, smell, and nutritional qualities, i.e. vitamins and proteins. Ultrasound is an efficient non-thermal (minimal) processing alternative. Synergies of Ultrasound with Temperature and Pressure : Synergies of Ultrasound with Temperature and Pressure Ultrasonication is often more effective when combined with other anti-microbial methods, such as: thermo-sonication, i.e. heat and ultrasound mano-sonication, i.e. pressure and ultrasound mano-thermo-sonication, i.e. pressure, heat and ultrasound The combined application of ultrasound with heat and/or pressure is recommended for Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sterothermophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aeromonas hydrophila. Process Development : Process Development Unlike other non-thermal processes, such as high hydrostatic pressure (HP), compressed carbon dioxide (cCO2) and supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) and high electric field pulses (HELP), ultrasound can be easily tested in lab or bench-top scale - generating reproducible results for scale-up. The intensity and the cavitation characteristics can be easily adapted to the specific extraction process to target specific objectives. Amplitude and pressure can be varied in a wide range, e.g. to identify the most energy efficient extraction setup. Ultrasonic Dispersing and Deagglomeration : Ultrasonic Dispersing and Deagglomeration Ultrasonic cavitation generates high shear that breaks particle agglomerates into single dispersed particles. Ultrasonic laboratory devices are used for volumes from 1.5mL to approx. 2L. Industrial ultrasonic devices are used in the process development and production for batches from 0.5 to approx 2000L or flow rates from 0.1L to 20m³ per hour. Ultrasonic Degassing and Defoaming of Liquids : Ultrasonic Degassing and Defoaming of Liquids ultrasound removes small suspended gas-bubbles from the liquid and reduces the level of dissolved gas below the natural equilibrium level. Purpose: sample preparation before particle size measurement to avoid measurement errors. oil and lubricant degassing before pumping to reduce pump wear due to cavitation degassing of liquid foods, e.g. juice, sauce or wine, to reduce microbial growth and increase shelf life Degassing of oil Sonication of Bottles and Cans for Leak Detection : Sonication of Bottles and Cans for Leak Detection Used in bottling and filling machines for the on-line container leak testing of bottles and cans. The instantaneous release of carbon dioxide is the decisive effect of ultrasonic leakage tests of containers filled with carbonated beverages Advantages : Advantages compact energy-saving easy-to-retrofit reliable continuous operation up to 36,000 bottles per hour by means of only 1kW (e.g. UIP1000) dry on-line sonication while container is moving Slide 40: This pressure appliance can consist of brushes, plastic foam, leaf springs etc. The beverage is excited indirectly via the wall of the can or bottle. Each filling machine can easily be retrofitted on account of this simple construction of the ultrasonic systems. The ultrasonic sonotrode can be either straight or curved to fit into your machine. : The ultrasonic sonotrode can be either straight or curved to fit into your machine. Slide 42: For a leakage test an ultrasonic processor with a unique bar sonotrode is integrated in the filling machine, in that way, that the cans or bottles are moved along the sonotrode. A pressure appliance mounted opposite to the sonotrode generates the pressure to the cans or bottles to the sonotrode, that is necessary for the ultrasonic excitation. On-line sensor for measuring the ultrasonic properties of foods flowing through pipes. : On-line sensor for measuring the ultrasonic properties of foods flowing through pipes. Limitations : Limitations Major disadvantages are: There are few commercial instruments specifically designed for application to food materials at present. Although this situation is changing; the technique is fairly application specific, i.e., calibration experiments have to be carried out for each new application; and ultrasound is highly attenuated by materials which contain small air bubbles, which may limit its application to certain foods. Conclusion : Conclusion Frequency of 20- 40 kHz has proved quite satisfactory results. Use of ultrasound in food preservation using the bactericidal action of sonication combined with other techniques such as heat, ultraviolet light and the use of a biocide. On-line sensors give manufacturers greater control over the properties of the product during manufacturing which leads to improvements in product quality and reduction in costs. Research Need : Research Need The utilization of ultrasonic cavitation for extraction and food preservation is a new powerful processing technology that can not only be applied safely and environmentally friendly but also efficiently and economically. The homogenizing and preserving effect can be easily used for fruit juices and purees (e.g. orange, apple, grapefruit, mango, grape, and plum) as well as for vegetable sauces and soups, like tomato sauce or asparagus soup. One of the most promising applications of ultrasound in the food industry is as an on-line sensor for measuring the properties of food materials during processing. There are a number of important attributes which any on-line sensor must have. It must be capable of rapid and reliable measurements, be non-invasive and non-destructive, be robust, low cost, easily automated and hygienic. REFERENCES : REFERENCES A.B. Bhatia, 1967. Ultrasonic absorption. Dove, New York. Allinger, H. (1975): American Laboratory, 7 (10). Bar, R. (1987): Ultrasound Enhanced Bioprocesses, in: Biotechnology and Engineering, Vol. 32, Pp. 655-663. C. Javanaud, (1988) Ultrasonics, 26 (117). D.J. McClements, 1995. in: Characterization of Foods: Emerging Methods (ed. A. Gaonkar), Elsevier. D.J. McClements, 1992 in: Developments in Acoustics and Ultrasonics (eds. M.J.W. Povey and D.J. McClements), lOP Pubhshing, Bristol, p. 165. El’piner, I.E. (1964): Ultrasound: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Effects (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1964), 53-78. Food and Drink Federation (U.K.), (1985). "Sensing and process control in tommorow's food and drink industry" Report of a working party of the Food and Drink Federation and the Food Manufacturers Federation. H.J. McSkimin, 1971. In: Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Vol lA, (ed. L. Hampton), Plenum Press, New York. J. Blitz, 1963.Fundamentals of Ultrasonics, Butterworths, London, J.D. McCann, (1986).Report AERE-R 11271 U.K. Atomic Energy Authority, Harwell. Slide 48: Kim, S.M. und Zayas, J.F. (1989): Processing parameter of chymosin extraction by ultrasound; in J. Food Sci. 54: 700. L. Bjomo. 1991 in: Ultrasonics International 91 Conference Proceedings, Butterworth- Heinemann, Oxford, p. 23. L.C. Lynworth, 1989. Ultrasonic measurements for process control: theory, techniques, and applications. Academic Press, San Diego. M.A. Breaeale, J.H. Cantrell and J.S. Heymann, 1964. in: Methods of experimental physics: Ultrasonics, Academic Press, New York. M.J.W. Povey and D.J. McClements, (1988) J. Food Eng. 8 217. Mokkila, M., Mustranta, A., Buchert, J., Poutanen, K (2004): Combining power ultrasound with enzymes in berry juice processing, at: 2nd Int. Conf. Biocatalysis of Food and Drinks, Stuttgart, Germany.P19. Moulton, K.J., Wang, L.C. (1982): A Pilot-Plant Study of Continuous Ultrasonic Extraction of Soybean Protein, in: Journal of Food Science, Volume 47. Mummery, C.L. (1978): The effect of ultrasound on fibroblasts in vitro, in: Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, London, England. Slide 49: THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.