INTERPRETATION AND REPORT WRITING: INTERPRETATION AND REPORT WRITING
Introduction: Introduction Interpretation is the process of making sense of numerical data that has been collected, analyzed, and presented. A common method of assessing numerical data is known as statistical analysis , and the activity of analyzing and interpreting data in order to make predictions is known as inferential statistics .
Meaning of interpretation: Meaning of interpretation Interpretation refers to the task of drawing inferences from the collected facts after an analytical and or experimental study. The task of interpretation has two major aspects Continuity explaflat concepts
Technique of interpretation: Technique of interpretation Explanations Extraneous information Guidance Relevant factors
Precautions in interpretation: Precautions in interpretation Data are appropriate Good homogeneity Proper analysis Avoid errors
Report writing: Report writing Latin word ‘portare’ means ‘to carry’ RE + PORT = to carry information again Document giving summarised and interpretative information of research done based on factual data, opinions and about procedures used by individual or group.
Significance: Significance To inform & Convince ? Incomplete till presented and written Effectively communicated Tool for decision making
Different Steps in Writing Report : Different Steps in Writing Report Logical analysis of the subject-matter Preparation of the final outline Preparation of the rough draft Rewriting and polishing Preparation of the final bibliography Writing the final draft.
LAYOUT OF RESEARCH REPORT: LAYOUT OF RESEARCH REPORT Research report should contain
Preliminary pages: Preliminary pages Title Page Acknowledgments Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures Abstract
Main text: Main text Introduction a. Statement of the Problem b. Significance of the Problem c. Purpose d. Statement of Hypothesis e. Assumptions f. Limitations g. Definition of Terms
Slide 12: Review of Related Literature Design of the Study a. Description of Research Design and Procedures Used b. Sources of Data c. Sampling Procedures d. Methods and Instruments of Data Gathering e. Statistical Treatment
Slide 13: Analysis of Data a. text with appropriate b. tables and c. figures Summary and Conclusions a. Restatement of the Problem b. Description of Procedures c. Major Findings (reject or fail to reject H o ) d. Conclusions e. Recommendations for Further Investigation
END MATTER: END MATTER End Notes Bibliography Appendix
TYPES OF REPORT: TYPES OF REPORT
TECHNICAL REPORT: TECHNICAL REPORT Method employed Assumptions made Presentation of findings Advantages Disadvantages Supporting Data
POPULAR REPORT: POPULAR REPORT Simple Attractive Use of Charts Diagrams Practical aspect Policy implication
OUTLINE OF REPORT: OUTLINE OF REPORT TECHNICAL Summary of results Nature of study Methods employed Data Analysis of data Presentation of findings Conclusion Bibliography Appendix Index POPULAR Findings and their implications Recommendations of action Objective of study Methods employed Results Appendices
Mechanics of writing a research report: Mechanics of writing a research report Size and physical design Procedure Layout Treatment of quotations Footnotes Documentation style Punctuations and abbreviations Statistics charts and graphs Final draft Bibliography Preparation of index
PRECAUTIONS: PRECAUTIONS Long / Short Interesting Objective style Charts and Diagrams with summary Appropriate layout Avoid mistakes Logical analysis Disclose methods employed, and techniques adopted Confidence and constraints experienced
Presentation of statistics: Presentation of statistics Text presentation Tabular presentation Semi-tabular presentation Graphical presentation
Diagrams: Diagrams A simple drawing showing the basic shape, layout, or workings of something . Diagrams refers to various types of bars, squares,rectangle,line,circle,maps,pictorials etc.,
SIGNIFICANCE: SIGNIFICANCE Birds eye view Active create interest Great memorizing effect Facilitate comparison of data
Rules to make diagram: Rules to make diagram Title Proportion between width and height Selection of Scale Footnotes Index Neatness and cleanliness Simplicity
TYPES: TYPES 1D/Bar Diagrams Simple bar diagram Sub-divided bar diagram Multiple bar diagram Percentage bar diagram Deviation bars Broken bars 2D Rectangles Squares Circles Pie Diagrams 3D Pictographs and Cartograms
Simple bar diagram: Simple bar diagram
Component/Sub-divided bar diagram: Component/Sub-divided bar diagram
Multiple bar diagram: Multiple bar diagram
Percentage bar diagram: Percentage bar diagram
Pie diagram: Pie diagram
Pictographs : Pictographs
Cartographs: Cartographs
Graphs: Graphs Diagram showing relationships between varying quantities: A diagram used to indicate relationships between two or more variable quantities. The quantities are usually measured along two axes set at right angles to each other. A graph may be in different forms, e.g. of a line joining points plotted between coordinates, or a series of parallel bars or boxes.
Types: Types Graphs of time series/Line graphs One Variable Two/More Variables Two Scales Graph Range Chart Band Graph Ratio Charts Graphs of frequency distribution Histograms Frequency polygon Smoothed Frequency Curve Ogives
Rules to make graph: Rules to make graph Time on X axis and value of variable on Y axis Begin from zero (can use false base line) and keep equal magnitude distances Plot values and join them (indicate plotting by circle) Multiple variables shown with different styles of line variations Lettering to be done horizontally on graph
One variable graph: One variable graph
Two/more variable graph: Two/more variable graph
Histogram: Histogram Set of vertical bars whose area are proportional to the frequencies represented. Variable on X axis and frequency on Y axis. Class interval need to be equal but in case of unequal class intervals frequencies need to be adjusted. Different from bar diagram because its 2D i.e. it has length and width.
Example: Example
LIMITATIONS OF GRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS: LIMITATIONS OF GRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS Present approximate value Limited amount of information Explain only quantitative facts Can be misinterpreted
Oral presentation: Oral presentation Delivering an address to a public audience. Provides better understanding. Briefing Speaking time – 20 minutes Followed by questions and discussion The major steps in oral presentations are planning, structuring, preparing and presenting.
Slide 42: Planning Purpose Audience Structure Opening Findings and conclusions Recommendations Prepare Time limits Speak from notes Body language voice Present
Speaker problems: Speaker problems Vocal characteristics Physical characteristics
Audiovisuals: Audiovisuals Low technology Chalkboards and whiteboards Handouts Flipcharts Overhead transparencies slides High technology Computer drawn visuals Computer animation