OSI and TCP-IP

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OSI & TCP/IP MODEL

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INTRODUCTION OSI MODEL : The Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model ) is an abstract description for layered communications and computer network protocol design. It was developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative. In its most basic form, it divides network architecture into seven layers which, from top to bottom, are the Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data-Link, and Physical Layers. It is therefore often referred to as the OSI Seven Layer Model . TCP/IP MODEL : The TCP/IP model is a description framework for computer network protocols created in the 1970s by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense. It evolved from ARPANET, which was the world's first wide area network and a predecessor of the Internet. The TCP/IP Model is sometimes called the Internet Reference Model or the DoD Model. The TCP/IP model, or Internet Protocol Suite, describes a set of general design guidelines and implementations of specific networking protocols to enable computers to communicate over a network. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. Protocols exist for a variety of different types of communication services between computers.

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OSI MODEL LAYERS

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DESCRIPTION : Layer 1: Physical Layer The Physical Layer resides immediately below the Data Link Layer.The Physical Layer is responsible for bit-level transmission between network nodes. In copper networks, the Physical Layer is responsible for defining specifications for electrical signals. In fiber optic networks, the Physical Layer is responsible for defining the characteristics of light signals.The Physical Layer defines items such as: connector types, cable types, voltages, and pin-outs. Layer 2: Datalink Layer The Data Link Layer resides above the Physical Layer and below the Network Layer.The Data Link Layer is responsible for communications between adjacent network nodes. Hubs and switches operate at the Data Link Layer. The Data Link Layer is logically divided into two sub-layers, The Media Access Control (MAC) Sub-layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) Sub-layer. Layer 3: Network Layer The Network Layer resides above the Data Link Layer and below the Transport Layer.The Network Layer is responsible for establishing paths for data transfer through the network. The Network Layer extends the Data Link Layer beyond the local network into an internetwork by providing for routing and forwarding of packets. The Network Layer is also responsible for packet sequencing, congestion control, and error handling.Routers operate at the Network Layer.

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Layer 4: Transport Layer The Transport Layer resides above the Network Layer and below the Session Layer.The Transport Layer is responsible for delivering messages between networked hosts.As part of this, the Transport Layer is also responsible for fragmentation and reassembly. In addition, some Transport Layer protocols also provide services to manage flow control and end-to-end error recovery. Layer 5: Session Layer The Session Layer resides above the Transport Layer and below the Presentation Layer. The Session Layer is responsible for establishing process-to-process commnunications between networked hosts. Layer 6: Presentation Layer The Presentation Layer resides above the Session Layer and below the Application Layer.The Presentation Layer is responsible for defining the syntax which two network hosts use to communicate. Encryption and compression should be Presentation Layer functions, although they are frequently provided on other layers. Layer 7: Application Layer The Application Layer resides above the Presentation Layer.The Application Layer of the OSI model is responsible for providing end-user services, such as file transfers, electronic messaging, e-mail, and virtual terminal access. The application layer is the layer with which the user interacts.

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COMMUNICATION PROCESS OSI LAYERS

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FUNCTION OF OSI LAYERS

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TCP/IP MODEL LAYERS

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DESCRIPTION OF TCP/IP LAYER PROTOCOLS TCP/IP Network Layer Protocols:- The TCP/IP network layer protocols are IP, ICMP, ARP and RARP etc. IP : The Internet Protocol (IP) is a network layer protocol is a routed protocol that follows a route guided by any routing protocol and provides best delivery routing of packets. It carries the datagram from source to destination by learning the ip address encapsulated on the IP header of the data packet. ICMP : The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a network layer protocol that provides the information about the operational status of the network. The "ping" command is used for sending and receiving the Echo request or Echo reply by using ICMP. The actual message resides inside the IP packet. ARP : The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a network layer protocol that resolves the known IP address of the networking device into the data-link address or MAC address. RARP : The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is a network layer protocol that resolves the known MAC address of the networking device into the IP address assigned to the specific device. This is the reverse of ARP. DHCP : The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network layer protocol that provides a framework for the automatic configuration of the IP addresses of the network hosts.

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TCP/IP Internet Layer Protocols:- In this section I provide details for the various TCP/IP protocols that reside architecturally at the TCP/IP internet layer / OSI network layer. Much of the focus here is on the all-important Internet Protocol; the section covering IP includes extensive coverage of IP version 4, IP version 6, and IP-related protocols such as IPSec, Mobile IP and IP Network Address Translation (NAT). The following three subsections cover IP support protocols such as the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) protocol, and the complete set of IP routing protocols.

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TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols:- At transport layer, the datagram segment is transported from source to destination by using the connection oriented or connectionless services. At this layer, logical port numbers are learned. TCP and UDP are the examples of the TCP/IP transport layer protocols. TCP : The TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a transport layer protocol that is used for reliable but slow data transfer. It is a connection oriented protocol which means that if the packet does not arrive at the destination, it is going to be re-transmitted. UDP : The UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a transport layer protocol that is used for fast but unreliable data transfer. It is a connectionless protocol which means that it has no mechanism of re-transmission of the packets that does not arrive at the destination.

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TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols:- TCP/IP supports many internet applications. Some of these applications are as follows: FTP : The FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a connection oriented and reliable service that uses TCP for transferring the files between systems over the network or internetwork. TFTP : The TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) is an unreliable and connectionless service that uses UDP. The router uses TFTP for transferring the Cisco IOS images and the configuration files. HTTP : The HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a protocol that is used for browsing the web sites and World Wide Web communications.

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Relationship of layers and addresses in TCP/IP

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COMPARISION BETWEEN OSI & TCP/IP MODEL

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SIMILARITIES : The main similarities between the two models include the following: 1. They share similar architecture. -    Both of the models share a similar architecture.  This can be illustrated by the fact that both of them are constructed with layers. 2. They share a common application layer.- Both of the models share a common “application layer”.  However in practice this layer includes different services depending upon each model. 3. Both models have comparable transport and network layers.- This can be illustrated by the fact that whatever functions are performed between the presentation and network layer of the OSI model similar functions are performed at the Transport layer of the TCP/IP model. 4. Knowledge of both models is required by networking professionals.- According to article obtained from the internet networking professionals “need to know both models”. 5. Both models assume that packets are switched.- Basically this means that individual packets may take differing paths in order to reach the same destination.

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DIFFERENCES : The main differences between the two models are as follows: 1. TCP/IP Protocols are considered to be standards around which the internet has developed.  The OSI model however is a "generic, protocol- independent standard.“ 2. TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layer issues into its application layer. 3. TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and physical layers into the network access layer. 4. TCP/IP appears to be a more simpler model and this is mainly due to the fact that it has fewer layers. 5. TCP/IP is considered to be a more credible model- This is mainly due to the fact because TCP/IP protocols are the standards around which the internet was developed therefore it mainly gains creditability due to this reason.  Where as in contrast networks are not usually built around the OSI model as it is merely used as a guidance tool. 6. The OSI model consists of 7 architectural layers whereas the TCP/IP only has 4 layers.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS :- TCP/IP protocol Suite (3 rd Edition) – BEHROUZ A. FOROUZAN TCP IP Illustrated: The Implementation- W RICHARD STEVENS Internet History – Pages on Robert Kahn, Vinton Cerf, and TCP/IP (reviewed by Cerf and Kahn) WEBSITE :- www.wikipedia.org www.tech-faq.com www.searchnetworking.techtarget.com

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