1 introduction to nursing research

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INTRODUCTION TO NURSING RESEARCH Evidence based practice (EBP) EBP is broadly defined as the use of the best clinical evidence in making patient care decisions, and such evidence typically comes from research conducted by nurses and other health care professionals.

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What is Nursing Research? Research is systematic inquiry that uses disciplined methods to answer questions or solve problems. The ultimate goal of research is to develop, refine, and expand a body of knowledge. Nursing research is systematic inquiry designed to develop trustworthy evidence about issues of importance to the nursing profession, including nursing practice, education, administration and informatics.

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Clinical nursing research , that is research designed to guide nursing practice and to improve the health and quality of the life of nurses’ clients.

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The importance of Research in Nursing Research findings from rigorous studies provide especially strong evidence for informing nurses’ decisions and actions. Nurses are accepting the need to base specific nursing actions and decisions on evidence indicating that the actions are clinically appropriate, cost effective, and result in positive outcomes for client.

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Provide very high quality nursing care, and to elevate the standards and reputation of the nursing profession. To achieve magnet status, the chief nurse executive needs to create, foster and sustain a practice environment were nursing research and evidence-based practice in integrated into both the delivery of nursing care and the framework for nursing administration decision making. The importance of Research in Nursing(contd..)

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Key concepts in Nursing Research

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Research terms Study (investigation or research project) Subjects or study participants (respondents) Informants, (key informants) Sample Researcher or Investigator Collaborative Research Project director or Principal investigator

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Co – investigator Reviewers Peer reviewers Funder or sponsors SETTINGS Naturalistic settings Laboratory Settings Field Work Multi site studies Research terms (contd..)

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PHENOMENA, CONCEPTS AND CONSTRUCTS Abstractions are called concepts Construct refers to an abstraction or mental representation inferred from situations or behaviors

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THEORIES AND CONCEPTUAL MODEL A theory is systematic, abstract explanation of some aspects of priority. On the basis of theory, researcher make predictions about how phenomena will behave in the real world if theory is true (Conceptual Model)

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VARABLES Heterogeneous Homogeneous ATTRIBUTE VARIABLE ACTIVE VARIABLE CONTINUOUS, DISCRETE AND CATEGORICAL VARIABLES Dichotomous variables Independent and dependent variable

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Conceptual and operational definitions Conceptual definition presents the abstract or theoretical meaning of the concepts being studied. Operational definition of a concept specifies the operations that researchers must perform to collect and measure the required information.

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Dependent and independent variable The presumed cause is the independent variable The presumed effect is the dependent variable Eg. Smoking(IV) causes lung cancer(DV) Effect of an exercise intervention(IV) on osteoporosis(DV)

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Conceptual and operational definitions A conceptual definition presents the abstract or theoretical meaning of the concepts being studied. An operational definition of a concept specifies the operations that researchers must perform to collect and measure the required information.

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Data Quantitative data Qualitative data Relationships It is a bond or a connection between phenomena.

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Quantitative studies Does a relationship between variables exist? What is a direction of the relationship between variables? How strong is the relationship between the variables? What is the nature of the relationship between the variables?

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Tradition and Authority Clinical experience, Trial and Error, and Intuition Logical Reasoning Assembled Information Disciplined Research SOURCES OF EVIDENCE FOR NURSING PRACTICE (contd..)

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The purposes of Nursing Research. Basic and applied research Basic research is undertaken to extend the base of knowledge in a discipline, or to formulate or refine a theory. Applied research focuses on finding solutions to existing problems and thus tends to be of greater immediate utility for EBP.

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Research to achieve varying levels of explanation Another way to classify research purposes concerns the extent to which studies are designed to provide explanatory information. Identification and Description Exploration Explanation Prediction and control Research, purposes linked to EBP Treatment, therapy or intervention Diagnosis and Assessment Prevention of Harm Etiology or Causation Meaning and Process