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IMPLANTS Implants are object or material inserted or grafted into the body for therapeutic, diagnostic, or experimental purposes. Implants are also defined as sterile drug product made by compression, inching, or sintering. Implants consist of drug and rate-controlling excipients. EXAMPLE:- 1) Gliadel wafer implants. 2) Zoladex implants.


IDEAL PROPERTIES OF IMPLANTS 1) Environmentally stable. 2) Biostable. 3) Biocompatible. 4) Non toxic and non-carcinogenic. 5) Minimum surface area, smooth texture. 6) Easily removable. 7) Medicament released rate.

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1) Diffusion controlled. 2) chemically controlled. 3) swelling controlled. 4) osmotically controlled. 5) magnetic controlled. 0 Mechanism of drug release from implantable system.

Implantable drug delivery systeman introduction : 

Implantable drug delivery systeman introduction Implantable drug delivery systems are placed completely under the skin — usually in a convenient but inconspicuous location. The patient is aware of only a small bump under the skin. designed to transmit drugs and fluids into the bloodstream without the repeated insertion of needles. well suited to the drug delivery requirements of insulin, steroids, chemotherapeutics, antibiotics, analgesics, total parenteral nutrition, and heparin.

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a)Controlled drug delivery by diffusion process Polymer membrane permeation- controlled drug delivery Matrix diffusion-controlled drug delivery Microreservior partition-controlled drug delivery system Membrane matrix hybrid-type drug delivery system Approaches to design implantable drug delivery systems

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b) Controlled drug delivery by activation process. Osmotic pressure Vapor pressure Magnetically Hydration Hydrolysis c) Controlled drug delivery by feed back regulated mechanism. Bioerosion Bioresponce

1) membrane permeation- controlled drug delivery. Non porous membrane. Micro porous membrane. Semi permeable membrane. drug encapsulated within a drug reservoir. drug release surface is covered by a rate limiting polymeric membrane. Controlled drug delivery by diffusion process

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solid , suspension or solution form. . The dug reservoir polymeric membrane non porous -homogenous -heterogenous micro porous semipermeable membrane.

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Encapsulation of drug formulation in to the reservoir compartment can be done by 1) Injection molding 2) Spray coating 3) microencapsulation Different shapes of the systems like sphere , cylinder or sheet can be fabricated EXAMPLE:- - Ocusert system. (Ocusert Pilo-20/40) ALZA - Progestasert IUD. (Tatum-T IUDs) ALZA

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Drug reservoir is prepared by homogenous dispersion of drug particles in a rate controlling polymer matrix fabricated from either a lipophillic or a hydrophilic polymer. The drug dispersion in a polymer matrix is done by 1) Blending. 2) Mixing. 3) Dissolving drug and polymer. (solvent evaporation) Matrix diffusion-controlled drug delivery

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The resultant drug polymer dispersion is then molded to form a drug delivery devices of various shapes. Example Contraceptive vaginal ring. Syncro mate B Implant. Compudose Implants. THE RATE OF DRUG RELEASE

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Drug reservoir{dispersion} Drug release Gel layer Hydrophilic polymer Swollable matrix Lipophillic polymer Non swollable matrix Drug release Drug depleted zone

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Drug reservoir is fabricated by aqueous suspension of a drug using a high energy dispersion technique in to a biocompatible polymer such as silicone elastomer to form a homogenous dispersion of microscopic drug reservoir. Depending on the physicochemical properties of the drug and the desired rate of drug release , the device can be further coated with polymer to modify mechanism and rate of release. Microreservior partition- controlled drug delivery system

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Polymer -solution interface Coating membrane Microscopic Drug reservoir {liquid compartment} Polymer matrix

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1) synco- mate C Implants. 2) Dual-release vaginal contraceptives ring. RATE OF RELEASE OF DRUG:- Example =

(II) Controlled drug delivery by activation process : 

(II) Controlled drug delivery by activation process 1)Osmotic pressure activated drug delivery system. In this type of controlled drug delivery system the release of the drug takes place due to osmotic pressure. Drug reservoir which can be either a solid or a suspension is contained in a semipermeable housing. The release is activated through a specially formed orifice and rate of release is modulated by controlling the osmotic gradient.

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Thus release rate is dependent on water permeability of membrane, solubility of osmogen, effective surface area of semipermeable housing as well as osmotic gradient. Representatative example of this type of implantable controlled release drug delivery system is alzet osmotic pump. RATE OF RELEASE OF DRUG:-

Alzet osmotic pump : 

Alzet osmotic pump

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2)Vapor pressure activated implantable drug delivery system. The drug reservoir which is in solution formulation is contained in to an infusate chamber. The chamber is having pumping system separated from the vapors pressure chamber which contains vaporizable fluids such as a fluorocarbon. The fluorocarbon vaporizes at body temperature creating a vapor pressure that pushes bellow to move upward and forces the drug solution to get delivered.

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EXAMPLE:- Infusaid. 3) Magnetically activated implantable drug delivery system. Magnetic ring Coated polymer Magnet inside polymer matrix A magnetic wave triggered mechanism is incorporated in to drug delivery device and drug can be triggered to be released at varying rate depending on the magnitude and duration of the electromagnetic energy applied

4) Hydrolysis activated drug delivery system. : 

4) Hydrolysis activated drug delivery system. Release of drug is activated by hydrolysis of a bioerodable polymer by the cell fluid at the implantation site Biodegradable polymer like 1) Co(lactic-glycolic)polymer 2) Poly(orthoester) 3) Poly(anhydride) are used in fabrication of this type of implantable drug delivery system This system is made by dispersing loading dose of a drug with a biodegradable polymer , which is then molded in to pellet or a bead shaped implant

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Example is a LHRH{goserelin} releasing biodegradable sub dermal implant.


REFERENCES NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Yie. W Chien, second edition, marcel dekker inc, page 381 DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS, Vasant V. Ranade Mannfred A. Hollinger Second Edition, Virtual Medical Centre