RADIOGRAPHS USED IN ORAL & MAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMA : RADIOGRAPHS USED IN ORAL & MAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMA Slide 3: Defination- Radiographs is an image on a film which is visible when viewed under transillumination, produced by the passage of x-rays through an object or body.
Defination of Radiology-Radiology is a medical science that deals with the study of radition and its use,radioactive substances & other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. HISTORY : HISTORY X-ray was discovered by WILHELM CONRAD ROENTGEN a bavarian physicist on november 8,1895.
Roentgen named these properties of such rays due to the unknown nature and properties of such rays.
The symbol ‘x’ is used in mathematics to represents an unknown quantity. Slide 5: INTRA ORAL- IOPAR
EXTRA ORAL- OPG
LATERAL OBLIQUE PROJECTION
LATERAL MANDIBULAR BODY PROJECTION
REVERSE TOWN’S PROJECTION
TMJ TOMOGRAPHY- Transcranial view
Transpharyngeal view IOPAR : IOPAR INDICATION-
1-To diagnosis the periapical region.
2-To evaluate fractured teeth.
3-To rule out impacted teeth,supernumerary teeth & root stumps.
4-Post surgical evaluation of the socket BITEWING : BITEWING Indication-
1-To detecting the interproximal caries.
2-To evaluating the height of alveolar bone. OCCLUSAL VIEW : OCCLUSAL VIEW INDICATION-
1-To visualize the impacted or abnormally placed maxillary anteriors teeth.
2-To diagnose the buccal or lingual expansion of the bone.
3-To detect the salivary stones. OPG(Panoromic View) : OPG(Panoromic View) Indication
1-For patient education.
2-To evaluate impacted teeth.
3-To evaluate eruption sequence & pattern,growth & development.
4-To detect any pathology involving jaws.
5-To evaluate mandibular’s fractures.
6-To identify tmj disorders. OPG : OPG Slide 11: A= Infraorbital rim
B= Zygomatic process of maxilla
D= Coronoid process Slide 12: A= Common nasal meatus
B= Inferior nasal concha
C= Hard palate
D= Superior border of the tongue Slide 13: A= Nasal septum
B= Hyoid bone
C= Zygomatic process of temporal bone
D= Inferior nasal meatus SMV(Submentovertex) : SMV(Submentovertex) Indication-
1-To detect fractures of zygomatic arch.
2-To detect destructive lesions affecting the palate,pterygoid region or base of skull.
3-Investigation of sphenoidal sinus. Slide 15: Upper and lower incisors superimposed Lateral wall of the orbit Anterior margin of the middle cranial fossa Lateral pterygoid plate Articular eminence Condylar head Anterior arch of atlas Foramen magnum Mastoid air cells Frontal sinus Zygomatic arch Postero-lateral wall of the maxillary antrum Sphenoidal sinus Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Foramen lacerum Auditory canal Odontoid peg Occipital condyle Shadow of the cervical spine PNS(Water’s projection) : PNS(Water’s projection) Indication-
1-Investigation of maxillary antrum.
2-Detecting the lefort’s fractures.
5-Orbital blow out.
6-Coronoid process fractures.
7-Investigation of frontal,ethmoidal & sphenoidal sinuses. PA Skull : PA Skull Indication-
1-Fractures of skull vault.
2-Investigation of frontal sinus.
3-Conditions affecting cranium(paget’s disease,multiple myeloma,hyperparathyroidism).
4-Intracranial calcification. Slide 19: A= Orbital plate of frontal bone
B= Frontal spine
C= Sup. border of orbit
D= Sphenoid sinus Slide 20: A= Lesser wing of sphenoid
B= Ethmoid sinus
C= Middle nasal meatus
D= Oblique orbital line
E= Floor of posterior cranial fossa Slide 21: A= Lacrimal canal
B= Middle nasal concha
D= Mastoid air cells
E= Atlas-occipital condyle articulation Slide 22: A= Zygomatic process of maxilla
B= Anterior border of ascending ramus
C= Coronoid process
D= Odontoid process of axis
E= Maxillary tuberosity Slide 23: A= Inferior nasal concha
B= Inferior nasal meatus
C= Occipital condyle
D= Maxillary sinus Slide 24: A= Wall of nasal fossa
B= Angle of the mandible
C= Body of the mandible
D= Maxillary sinus
E= Nasal septum PA Mandible : PA Mandible INDICATION-
1-Fractures of mandible(posterior third of the body,angle region,ramus,low condylar neck).
2-Mandibular hypoplasia or hyperplasia.
3-Lesions such as cysts or tumors in posterior third of the body or rami to note any medio-lateral expansion. Slide 26: Condylar neck Lower border of the orbit Coronoid process Inf . Surface of zygoma Angle of the mandible Sphenoidal sinus Inf. Surface of petrous temporal Mastoid process Nasal cavity Shadow of the cervical spine LATERAL OBLIQUE PROJECTION : LATERAL OBLIQUE PROJECTION INDICATION-
1-In mandibular angle or ramus fracture.
2-To evaluation of the impacted teeth. Slide 28: Coronoid Process
Hyoid bone Slide 29: Maxillary tuberosity
Lower border of mandible (side away from film)
Superior border of tongue
Mandibular canal Slide 30: Zygomatic process of maxilla
Lower border of mandible (side closer to film)
Zygomatic arch LATERAL MANDIBULAR BODY PROJECTION : LATERAL MANDIBULAR BODY PROJECTION INDICATION-
1-In mandibular body fractures.
2-To detect any pathology in body region. LATERAL CEPHALOGRAM : LATERAL CEPHALOGRAM INDICATION-
1-In orthognathic surgery for pre & post operative evalution of skeletal & soft tissue pattern.
2-In orthdontics for the confirmation of skeletal or dental abnormalities. REVERSE TOWNE’S PROJECTION : REVERSE TOWNE’S PROJECTION INDICATION-
1-High fractures of the condylar nack.
2-Intracapsular fractures of TMJ.
3-Condylar hyperplasia or hypoplasia. Slide 36: Post. Nasal fossa Lat pterygoid plate Inf. Border of the orbit Angle of the mandible Maxillary incisor Foramen magnum Condylar head Mastoid process Zygomatic arch Nasal septum Inf. Border of the zygoma Spinous process of a cervical vertebra Body of the mandible Slide 37: TMJ TOMOGRAPHY Transcranial Transorbital Transpharyngel Indication-1-In internal dearrangement to view the joint space.2-In condylar head & neck fracture.3-In malignancies.4-Tissue change caused by arthritis : Indication-1-In internal dearrangement to view the joint space.2-In condylar head & neck fracture.3-In malignancies.4-Tissue change caused by arthritis Transcranial view Transorbital view Transpharyngel view