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all about NVC


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NVC Nonverbal communication is understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless ( mostly visual ) cues between people . Sending and receiving messages in a variety of ways without the use of verbal codes (words) Messages transmitted by vocal means that do not involve language


FUNCTIONS OF NVC Argyle (1988) concluded there are five primary functions of nonverbal bodily behavior in human communication: [17] Express emotions Express interpersonal attitudes To accompany speech in managing the cues of interaction between speakers and listeners Self-presentation of one’s personality Rituals (greetings)


functions Repeating Substituting Complementing Accenting Regulating Contradicting Deceiving


Repeating The use of nonverbal behavior to say what you are saying in words Emblems - are the nonverbal behaviors that we use to display what we mean Example: head nods at the same time as someone saying “yes ” Gestures can nonverbally help you repeat your verbal message for example you can say, “I have three major points to talk about today” while holding up three fingers .


Substituting The use of nonverbal behaviors to say things rather than words We often answer questions others ask by responding nonverbally rather than verbally Example: Nodding your head to answer a question rather than saying “yes”


Complementing The use of nonverbal behaviors to strengthen what is being said with words . Illustrators - nonverbal behaviors that support what is being said verbally Example: A friend says “I am so sorry” and at the same time makes a sincerely sad face A politician who declines to comment on a reporter's question, while holding up her hand to augment her verbal refusal, uses her gesture to complement or provide further meaning to her verbal message.


Accenting The way we emphasize certain words in order to clarify what we mean. Example: “NO!” or “No????”


Regulating Nonverbal behaviors that control the flow of the conversation, and tell us when it is our turn to talk, or when the other person is finished talking. Example: while telling a story to a friend, one may pause to allow room for comments Gestures can also regulate the exchange between you and your audience. If you want the audience to respond to a question, you can extend both palms to invite a response


Contradicting When people are saying one thing yet their nonverbal behavior is telling us something completely different . Since your audience will sooner believe what you communicate non-verbally, you need to monitor your gestures to make sure that they are not contradicting what you say . Example: A friend says, “I am so sorry” while smiling

Communication Comprises of 3 V’s:

Communication Comprises of 3 V’s Verbal 7% Vocal 38% Visual 55%

3. Impact of culture :

3. Impact of culture When in Rome, do as Romans do.’ Italians – one to five 1 – Thumb, 2 – index finger, Thumb –power and superiority signal Cultural Differences. Always consider cultural differences when you send or receive nonverbal messages. A message that has a particular meaning in one society can have a completely different meaning in another society. For example, in the United States we encourage eye contact as an indicator of honesty and interest. People in some other societies believe that they should look down when talking to another person to indicate deference and respect. For them, direct eye contact might be considered offensive and disrespectful.

Non Verbal Communication PRINCIPLES :

Non Verbal Communication PRINCIPLES 1.Supplements Verbal Communication 2.Regulates Interaction 3. Establishes Relationships 4. Reflects Cultural Values

Forms of Non-Verbal Communication :

Forms of Non-Verbal Communication Conscious Non- Verbal Communication : Senders of conscious nonverbal communications are aware that they are sending a message and the general meaning of that message. For example, the individuals extending a hug know that they are embracing someone and that action is normally perceived as indicating affection. Receivers of conscious nonverbal communication are aware that they received the message and the meaning intended by the sender. The receiver of a hug, for example, generally realizes that the message is a sign of friendship.

Subliminal Non VerbalCommunication :

Subliminal Non VerbalCommunication Subliminal messages are communicated to the subconscious mind of the receiver. Receivers of subliminal messages are not consciously aware of the message. However, these messages are important. Gut reactions are frequently based upon your subconscious reading of subliminal nonverbal. Although subliminal messages do not create awareness on a conscious level, they still influence the receiver. In fact, subliminal messages are often more powerful than conscious messages. The advertising world is replete with examples of the value of subliminal nonverbal messages. Young, beautiful people are often seen in advertisements to communicate the subconscious message that the advertised product is associated with youth and beauty.

Aims & Goals of Non Verbal Communication:

Aims & Goals of Non Verbal Communication a. to Create impressions through body language & paralanguage b. to Initiate and manage interactions c. to Express emotions d. to Convey deception e. to Convey power

Types of Non Verbal Communication:

Types of Non Verbal Communication Facial expressions and eye contact-Kinesics (body motion) , Eye movement ( occulesics ), Smells ( olfactics ) Gesture and posture Vocal characteristics , Vocalics or Paralanguage Personal appearance/ Physical appearance Touching behaviour - Haptics (touch) Use of time and space Artifacts Environmental factors Proxemics - personal space, Chronemics (time)

I. Body Movements :

I. Body Movements Emblems Illustrators Affect Displays Regulators Adaptors Kinesics

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Kinesics is the interpretation of body language such as facial expressions and gestures — or, more formally, non-verbal behavior related to movement, either of any part of the body or the body as a whole.

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A. Emblems = are a nonverbal substitute for the verbal message

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illustrators = visually demonstrate & accompany the verbal message The fish was this big

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C. Affect Displays = any emotional response

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D. Regulators = group of behaviors that encourage or discourage communication

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Adaptors = satisfy some need Proxemics can be defined as "the interrelated observations and theories of man’s use of space as a specialized elaboration of culture ”. the value in studying proxemics comes from its applicability in evaluating not only the way man interacts with others in his daily life, but also "the organization of space in his houses and buildings, and ultimately the layout of his towns .

Proxemics and Personal Space :

Proxemics and Personal Space Every culture has norms for using space. In the U.S. we interact with acquaintances from 4’ to 12’ and within 18” or less for close friends or intimates. In China families often share bathrooms and kitchens with other families. People who want to even out power seek out neutral territory. Greater space may be assumed by those with higher status. Those with greater power often invade others’ territory.

Proxemics and Personal Space :

Proxemics and Personal Space How people arrange space reflects how close they are and whether they want interaction. Home furniture arranged comfortably and close invites conversation. Offices with seating open rather than a desk separating people invites interaction. Restaurants can arrange seating to encourage people to spend time or to eat quickly and leave.

Haptics (touch):

Haptics (touch) Haptics is the study of touching as nonverbal communication, and haptic communication refers to how people and other animals communicate via touching . Touches among humans that can be defined as communication include handshakes , holding hands, kissing (cheek, lips, hand), back slapping, high fives , a pat on the shoulder, and brushing an arm.

Chronemics (time):

Chronemics (time) How do we manage and react to others’ management of time Duration Activity Punctuality A study conducted by Burgoon (1989) found that people who arrive 15 minutes late are considered dynamic, but much less competent, composed and sociable than those that arrive on time.

Paralanguage (Vocalics):

Paralanguage ( Vocalics ) Sounds (gasps and murmurs) How we pronounce words The accents we use Complexity of our sentences Paralanguage refers to the non-verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion. Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or unconsciously , and it includes the pitch , volume , and, in some cases, intonation of speech . Sometimes the definition is restricted to vocally-produced sounds . The study is known as paralinguistics .

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PARALANGUAGE CONSISTS OF THE NON-VERBAL ELEMENTS THAT ACCOMPANY SPEECH. IT INCLUDES: The way we speak (also known as prosodic features) Volume, pitch, intonation, speed of delivery, articulation, rhythm The sounds we make other than language Laughter, crying, yawning, sighing, screeching, coughing Filled pauses such as ‘ Mmmm ’, ‘ Ahhh ’, ‘ Ummm ’ Unfilled pauses

Eye Movement - Occulesics:

Eye Movement - Occulesics Eye movement, length and direction of gaze, changes in pupil size We are hypersensitive to information imparted by eyes Can be argued eyes reveal the truthfulness of what is being said

Smell - Olfactics:

Smell - Olfactics Humans do not have a particularly well-developed sense of smell compared with other species Perfumes and deodorants send powerful messages, as can the natural body odours we try to suppress A rapidly growing industry has developed around the use of smells

Other Nonverbal Codes:

Other Nonverbal Codes Chemical Code Natural body odor, tears, sweat, household smells Dermal Code Blushing, goose flesh Physical Code Weight, body shape Artifactual Code Creations people make, wear (jewelry, ornaments)

Peter Collett’s Handshake Theory:

Peter Collett’s Handshake Theory The Bonecrusher The Limp Handshake The Firm Handshake The Limpet Handshake The Clammy Handshake The Reinforced Handshake The Relocated Handshake The Upper Handshake The Pull-In 7. The Two-Handed Shake 8. The Topper 9. The Finger Squeeze 10. The Bone Crusher 11. The Palm Pinch 12. The Limp Fish

Guidelines to Improve non verbal communication :

Guidelines to Improve non verbal communication A . Monitor your non verbal communication B . Learn to interpret others C . Develop self awareness D . Develop self awareness E . Ask friends for feedback F . Videotape yourself and improve

Some Negative Gestures:

Some Negative Gestures Nervousness Hands in pocket Biting nails Scratching Looking at the ceiling

Negative Gestures:

Negative Gestures 2. Aggressiveness Staring Pointing at someone Showing a fist

Negative Gestures:

Negative Gestures 3 . Rudeness Shake hands too hard Whisper Yawn Look at watch

Negative Gestures:

Negative Gestures 4. Self Importance Eyes closed while talking Looking overt the top of glasses Head bent back wards

Negative Gestures:

Negative Gestures 5 . Superiority Not acknowledging greetings Shouting orders Continue to work as others speak Reclining in chair

Non Verbal Communication KOPPACT:

Non Verbal Communication KOPPACT K- Kinesics O- Occulesics P- Paralinguistics P- Proximics A- Artifacts C- Chronemics T- Tactilics

Synchrony of Nonverbal Codes:

Synchrony of Nonverbal Codes Cultures train members to to synchronize the various nonverbal behaviors This synchronization forms a response pattern that typifies the expected behaviors in that culture

Nonverbal Communication and Intercultural Competence:

Nonverbal Communication and Intercultural Competence Nonverbal operates largely outside one’s conscious awareness Nonverbal meaning are subjective No one individual’s nonverbal cues fit exactly the cultural generalization formed One can practice the ability to observe, evaluate and behave in effective ways during intercultural encounters

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