Renewable and Non Renewable Energy

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Slide 1: 

Renewable & Non Renewable Energy Nikhil Rungta

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Contents: - Renewable Energy Solar Energy Geothermal Energy Tidal Energy Wave Energy Wind energy Biomass Non Renewable Energy Fossil Fuels Nuclear Energy

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Renewable Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2006, about 18% of global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.4% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3.4% from new renewable. Wind power is widely used in Europe, Asia & U.S.

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Geothermal Geothermal roots from Greek, where geo means Earth and thermos meaning heat. Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Advantages of Geothermal Energy: Low costs Consumes less electricity More efficiency than gas and oil furnaces A highly acceptable solution as greenhouse gases and air pollutants levels are less Cools and operates quietly Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy: High installation costs Requires lots of space Needs a bedrock base Installation is tricky

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Tidal Tidal energy is a hydropower which converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. Advantages of Tidal Energy: Predictable and reliable Doesn’t depend on weather No pollution Requires no fuel Not expensive to maintain Disadvantages of Tidal Energy: A barrage is expensive to build and affects a wide area Environment is being affected Provide power for only 10 hours a day Cannot be installed everywhere

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Wave Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work — for example for electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs). Wave energy is, in effect, a stored and concentrated form of solar energy, since the winds that produce waves are caused by pressure differences in the atmosphere arising from solar radiation. Waves transmit this energy thousands of miles with minimal loss. Wave size is a function of the wind's speed, how long it blows, and fetch, which is the distance over which it blows. Advantages of Wave Energy: Waves will not run out No greenhouse gases are produced Few safety risks Cost is low apart from initial cost Due to its abundance and substantial power wave energy can produce a significant amount of power Disadvantages of Wave Energy: Accidents and unforeseen conditions may cause environmental concerns Waves aren’t predictable Less reliable than other sources Negative impact on marine habitat Noise pollution can be generated

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Wind Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, wind mills for mechanical power, wind pumps for pumping water or drainage, or sails to propel ships. Wind power is non-dispatchable, meaning that for economic operation, all of the available output must be taken when it is available. Advantages of Wind Energy: Wind turbines take up less space Great source to produce electricity in remote areas When combined with solar energy, it's a great energy source to provide for developed countries steady, reliable energy. Newer technologies are making extraction of wind energy more efficient Disadvantages of Wind Energy: Wind turbines produce a lot less than a average fuel powered station Need a specific landscape to build a wind farm Creates a lot of noise Ruins the natural beauty of farms

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Biomass Biomass, a renewable energy source, is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms, such as wood, waste, (hydrogen) gas, and alcohol fuels. Biomass is commonly plant matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat. In this sense, living biomass can also be included, as plants can also generate electricity while still alive. The most conventional way on how biomass is used however, still relies on direct incineration. Forest residues for example (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings, wood chips and garbage are often used for this. However, biomass also includes plant or animal matter used for production of fibers or chemicals. Biomass may also include biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel. It excludes organic materials such as fossil fuels which have been transformed by geological processes into substances such as coal or petroleum.

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Non Renewable A non-renewable resource is a natural resource which cannot be produced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate. These resources often exist in a fixed amount, or are consumed much faster than nature can create them. Fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum and natural gas) and nuclear power (uranium) are examples. In contrast, resources such as timber (when harvested sustainably) or metals (which can be recycled) are considered renewable resources. All machines run on some form of energy – some of these such as the fossil fuels – cause harm to the environment.

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Fossil Fuels Natural resources such as coal, petroleum, oil and natural gas take thousands of years to form naturally and cannot be replaced as fast as they are being consumed. Eventually natural resources will become too costly to harvest and humanity will need to find other sources of energy. At present, the main energy sources used by humans are non-renewable as they are cheap to produce natural resources, called renewable resources, are replaced by natural processes given a reasonable amount of time. Soil, water, forests, plants, and animals are all renewable resources as long as they are properly conserved. Solar, wind, wave, and geothermal energies are based on renewable resources. Renewable resources are practically infinite and cannot be depleted, unlike their non-renewable counterparts, which are likely to run out if not used wisely. Still, these technologies are not fully utilized but are still being researched.

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Nuclear Nuclear energy is the energy that is trapped inside each atom. The ancient Greeks believed that the smallest part of nature is an atom. But they did not know 2000 years ago that atoms are made up of further smaller particles—a nucleus of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons, which swirl around the nucleus much like the earth revolves around the sun. Nuclear energy can also be harnessed by fusion. A fusion reaction occurs when two hydrogen atoms combine to produce one helium atom. This reaction takes place at all times in the sun, which provides us with the solar energy. This technology is still at the experimental stage and may become viable in future.