ROLE OF WATER AUDIT IN WATER CONSERVATION

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The objectives of water audit are to assess total quantity of water produced, total quantity of water actually utilized for domestic, industrial, and other basic needs. It also gives details of loss of water between conveyance which include both physical and nonphysical losses. Water audit can be used to identify priorities area which needed to give immediate attentions. Hence water audit is an effective management tool for minimizing losses, optimizing various uses and thus enabling considerable conservation of water in all sectors. Thus Water audit improves the knowledge and documentation of the distribution system, problem and risk areas and a better understanding of what is happening to the water after it leaves the source point. Leak detection programs help in minimizing leakages and tackling small problems before they become major ones. These programs lead to (a) reduced water losses, (b) improved financial performance, (c) improved reliability of supply system, (d) enhanced knowledge of the distribution system,(e) efficient use of existing supplies, (f) better safeguard to public health and property, (g) improved public relations, (h) reduced legal liability, and (i) reduced disruption, thereby improving level of service to customers.

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Role of Water Audit in Water Conservation :

Role of Water Audit in Water Conservation By Nikhil.S.Deshmukh (2014MCW017) Guide: Dr. P.D Dahe

Contents:

About Water audit. Objectives. Technical terms involved. Losses. Corrections foe losses. Steps involved in water audit. Overview about CSE water audit. Conclusion. References. Contents

What is Water Auditing?:

Total quantity of water produced by water supply authority. Actual quantity of water distributed throughout area of service. Amount of water lost. Amount of water delivered to unmetered users. Detailed profile of distribution system & water users. Implementation of water loss reduction plans and important steps towards water conservation. What is Water Auditing?

Objectives of Water Audit:

To utilize water resources effectively and more efficiently. To keep check on unwanted excess usage of water Helpful for planning develop a water storage structures like dam, lake, bunds etc. For cost-benefit study for optimum recovery of water loss. To identify thefts, meter inaccuracies, record inaccuracies and unauthorized water use. To determine losses both physical and non-physical. To identify priorities area which need immediate attention for control and maintenance. Objectives of Water Audit

Terms involved in Water Audit :

Supply : Water released from the control points in water system. Leakage : Water lost from the water system due to system defect before reaching point of desired destination. Consumption : Water reaching the consumer property / water used by consumer. Authorized Consumption : The volume of metered and unmetered water delivered to authorized customer. Non Revenue Water : Total losses – Unbilled authorized consumption. Unaccounted for Water: Total produced- Authorized use Terms involved in Water Audit

Losses & there types:

1.Real Losses Includes physical losses. Poor network design, construction & aging of pipe network. 1/3 of total losses. Arise due to leakage ay connections, joints, valves and fittings. 2. Apparent Losses Includes non-physical losses. Meter & record inaccuracies, unauthorized connections & excessive customer use. 2/3 of total losses. Arise due illegal connections, poor revenue collection policy, lack of metering, flat tariff rates & unregistered use by customers. Losses & there types

Common causes of water loss:

Corrosion Excess pressure Seismic activity Temperature variation Lack of regular maintenance Poor design and installations Pressure fluctuations Excessive traffic loading Impacts due to water quality and chemical build up C ommon causes of water l oss

Corrective measures for losses:

1.Real Loss Leak detection, timely response to visible maintenance. Replacement or repair of service connections & water mains. Corrosion control & overflow control. Pressure management. 2.Apparent Loss Re-specifying, re-sizing & replacement of meters. Improvements to meter reading methods. Billing improvements. Identification of unauthorized connection. Corrective m easures for losses

Steps involved in Water Audit:

1. Water supply & usage study . Preparation of layout of water sources, distribution network & delivery points. A record of past consumption patterns of various sectors. Data of rainwater harvesting & effluent recycling. 2. Process study Installation of flow measurement devices. Monitoring quality of distribution system. Leakage assessment will be integral part. Steps involved in Water Audit

3. System audit:

Current water usages & systems for water use under various sectors. Check the operational efficiency & level of maintenance. Bulk metering at source for zones revenue metering for consumers. 4. Discharge analysis Domestic wastewater, return flows from irrigation. Recovery of valuable by products. Recycling of waste water. 3. System audit

5. Water audit report:

It contains amount of water made available at source. Amount of water utilized both through metered & unmetered supplies. Water loss along with the reasons. Suggested measures to check water loss & improve efficiency. A proposal for detection of leak in distribution system. Data of type of connections metered, unmetered. Number of illegal connections and strategies to seal them. Cost-benefit study for optimum recovery of water loss. 5. Water audit report

6.Water loss reduction plans:

Water accounting Improved metering Improved pressure management Overflow prevention Consumer education Implementation schedule Comparing results of several water audits. Plan for improved loss control 6.Water loss reduction plans

Water audit at CSE New Delhi:

The key components in the water audit methodology undertaken for the CSE building Pre audit information. Base lining & benchmarking. Water audit at building level. Data comparison & analysis. Water audit at CSE New Delhi

Conclusion:

Most of the attention given to water conservation in the past has dealt with consumer oriented water conservation practices and devices. Although some of these devices can be quite effective in reducing consumption when properly used. In addition, conducting a water audit often results in various ancillary benefits to a water utility including increases in revenue to the utility by introducing slabs within uses of various sectors, by giving concession rate on reduced consumption & giving subsidies for reuse waster water use and rainwater harvesting. Conclusion

References:

General Guidelines for water audits and water conservation by Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India . Water Audit- An effective management Tool for Conservation of Water by V.S Jayashree. A paper on role Water Audit in water conservation from American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). A journal from International Seminar on ensuring sustainable Urban Water Supply management: Best practices/Case studies. Water Audit for Centre of Science and Environment (CSE ), Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Water Audits and water loss control for public water system from United States Environmental Protection. References

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