Fabrication Techniques of micro and nanoparticles

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FABRICATION TECHNIQUES Solvent Evaporation Spray Drying Spray freezing in to liquid Phase Separation Coacervation Hot Melt Technique Emulsification diffusion Solvent Displacement Electrostatic Spraying

Solvent Evaporation:

Solvent Evaporation Polymer and drug dissolved in volatile organic solvent Dispersion in an aq. solution containing surfactant under high speed agitation Fine droplets Evaporation of organic solvent either by continuous stirring or elevated temperature Formation of micro/ nanoparticles

Spray Drying:

Spray Drying Drug and polymer dissolved in suitable solvent Atomized in a stream of hot air Formation of small droplets from which solvent evaporates rapidly Formation of micro/ nanoparticles Separation of micro/ nanoparticles from hot air by cyclone separator

PowerPoint Presentation:

Spray Drying Chamber

Spray freezing in to liquid:

Spray freezing in to liquid Drug-Polymer solution Atomized in to a cryogenic liquid (liquid nitrogen) Frozen micro/ nanoparticles Lyophilization Free flowing powder

Phase Separation Coacervation:

Phase Separation Coacervation Polymer dissolved in solvent Drug dispersed or dissolved in the polymer solution Phase separation by addition of incompatible polymer Polymer rich globules Hardening/solidification of polymer by addition of nonsolvent Micro/ nanoparticles are separated and dried

Hot Melt Technique:

Hot Melt Technique Melted polymer + Drug Suspended in a non-miscible solvent with continuous stirring & heated to 5 0 C above the melting point of the polymer Formation of stable emulsion Cooling Polymer particle solidify Formation of micro/ nanoparticles

Emulsification Diffusion:

Emulsification Diffusion Polymer is dissolved in the water saturated solvent Organic phase is emulsified in the aq. solution containing a stabilizer Subsequent addition of the water to the system Diffusion of the solvent in to the external phase Formation of Micro/ Nanoparticles from which solvent is removed by distillation

Solvent Displacement:

Solvent Displacement The polymer and drug is dissolved in a water miscible solvent (acetone, ethanol) injected in to an aq. solution containing a stabilizer under high speed agitation Rapid solvent diffusion Formation of micro/ nano particles

Electrostatic Spraying:

Electrostatic Spraying Principle If an electric field is applied to any droplet, the electric charge generates an electrostatic force inside the droplet which is able to overcome the cohesive force of the droplet and thus break the droplet in to the micro/ nano scales.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Polymer solution loaded into a syringe Infused at constant rate using the syringe pump through a small but highly charged capillary Charged droplet Micro/ Nanoparticles Collector (7 to 30 cm distance from the capillary) Solvent evaporation Breakup due to electrostatic force


References Jain NK, editor. Controlled and Novel drug delivery. 5 th ed. New Delhi: CBS Publication; 2007. p. 236-247. Puvvada YS et al . Drug delivery systems using chitosan nanoparticles. Am. J. PharmTech Res. 2012; 2(2):1-19. Maria A et al . Electrospraying, a Reproducible Method for Production of Polymeric Microspheres for Biomedical Applications. Polymers 2011; 3:131-149. Donald W, Michael D et al . Polymeric Nanoparticles. Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.8:873–903. VJ Mohanraj and Y Chen. Nanoparticles -A Review Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2006; 5(1): 561-573.

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