Ecological Succession


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Changes in Ecosystems:Ecological Succession : 

Changes in Ecosystems:Ecological Succession

Definition: : 

Definition: Natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary The gradual replacement of one plant community by another through natural processes over time

Primary Succession : 

Primary Succession Begins in a place without any soil Sides of volcanoes Landslides Flooding Starts with the arrival of living things such as lichens that do not need soil to survive Called PIONEER SPECIES

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Primary Succession : 

Primary Succession Soil starts to form as lichens and the forces of weather and erosion help break down rocks into smaller pieces When lichens die, they decompose, adding small amounts of organic matter to the rock to make soil

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Primary Succession : 

Primary Succession Simple plants like mosses and ferns can grow in the new soil

Primary Succession : 

Primary Succession The simple plants die, adding more organic material The soil layer thickens, and grasses, wildflowers, and other plants begin to take over

Primary Succession : 

Primary Succession These plants die, and they add more nutrients to the soil Shrubs and tress can survive now

Primary Succession : 

Primary Succession Insects, small birds, and mammals have begun to move in What was once bare rock now supports a variety of life

Secondary Succession : 

Secondary Succession Begins in a place that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms Occurs faster and has different pioneer species than primary succession Example: after forest fires

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Climax Community : 

Climax Community A stable group of plants and animals that is the end result of the succession process Does not always mean big trees Grasses in prairies Cacti in deserts

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