Phrases and Clauses

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Superman and Batman:

Superman and Batman

(or phrases and clauses):

(or phrases and clauses) By Neva, Olivia, Emma and Allison But seriously, the superhero one is MUCH more interesting

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PHRASES DOES NOT HAVE BOTH A SUBJECT AND A VERB CLAUSES DOES HAVE BOTH A SUBJECT AND A VERB

Phrases -- Four kinds (remember: doesn’t have both subject and predicate):

Phrases -- Four kinds (remember: doesn’t have both subject and predicate)

Prepositional phrase:

Prepositional phrase Prepositional phrase = preposition + noun From the house – from(p) + the house(n) He ran away from the house. Over the dog – over(p) + the dog(n) I jumped over the dog.

If you are ever unsure if a word is a preposition, think “in the basket.”:

If you are ever unsure if a word is a preposition, think “in the basket.” Down the stairs Over the hurdle After the movie

Participle Phrase:

Participle Phrase Participle Phrase = Participle + Noun A participle is a verb that is used as another part of speech. The are easy to identify : they end in – ed or – ing . Baked apples Sitting Duck Running Water

Participle phrases always function as ADJECTIVES. They add descriptions to the sentence. - Munching on popcorn - Washed with soap and water - Staying up all night There are two types of participle phrases: present and past. Present = -ing Past = -ed:

Participle phrases always function as ADJECTIVES. They add descriptions to the sentence. - Munching on popcorn - Washed with soap and water - Staying up all night There are two types of participle phrases: present and past. Present = -ing Past = -ed DON’T MISTAKE A PARTICIPLE PHRASE FOR A GERUND PHRASE AND VICE VERSA!

Infinitive phrase:

Infinitive phrase Infinitive Phrase = Infinitive + Noun An infinitive phrase will begin with an infinitive( to+the present tense of the verb) To crush a can To eat food

Gerund Phrase :

Gerund Phrase Gerund Phrase = Gerund + Noun A gerund phrase will begin with a gerund (an ing word). Gerund phrases will always act as nouns so they will always either be subjects, subject complements, or objects in the sentence. Take a group of words(starting with an –ing word) and stick them in the place of a noun. Chewing gum while laying in bed can lead to a huge mess. Chewing gum while laying in bed can lead to a huge mess. Gerund phrase

CLAUSES:

CLAUSES

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE:

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE One or more subjects + One or more verbs = Independent Clause Independent clauses are a group of words that conveys a full thought in a sentence. They can stand solo as a sentence. Becky and Bob practiced Kung Fu. Independent clauses are the bomb diggity. Subject Verb

Dependent Clauses:

Dependent Clauses Dependent Clauses, unlike Independent clauses, cannot stand alone as a sentence. They have a SUBOORDINATING CONJECTION which cripples them. When we ate the cupcakes. Some common ones are; after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while. Suboordinating Conjunction Complete thought

Make sense?:

Make sense? Good!

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