What is Mindfulness?

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What is Mindfulness?

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Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapya Primer: 

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy a Primer Dr. Kerri McGuire Women’s Health Issues April 26, 2007

Outline: 

Outline The Territory of Depression Why does depression recur? Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) Future Directions

The Territory of Depression: 

The Territory of Depression WHO predicts that by 2010 depression will rank second to cardiovascular disease in economic and personal costs. Chronic illness, typically with several recurrences

Rates of Depressive Relapse Over 15 Years: 

Rates of Depressive Relapse Over 15 Years

Risk Factors For Depressive Relapse: 

Risk Factors For Depressive Relapse Number of Past Episodes of Depression Family History of Depression Significant Losses/Stressors Cognitive Reactivity to Sad Moods

Qualities of Relapse-Related States of Mind: 

Qualities of Relapse-Related States of Mind Automatic - Little intentional control of attention - Avoidant or suppressive Ruminative and Centered on Self -Strong identification with thoughts and feelings -Strongly correlated with the past # of depressions -Gender differences in rumination correlate with gender distribution in depression

Rumination Can Be Seen To Be Emotional Wisdom: 

Rumination Can Be Seen To Be Emotional Wisdom P<.002; Watkins & Moulds (2005) P<.02; J Pers & Soc Psych (2000)

Qualities of Relapse-Related States of Mind: 

Qualities of Relapse-Related States of Mind Content - “In order to be happy, I must be……” - “Admitting to your mistakes is a sign of weakness” - “If others look to me for guidance, it would make me feel important” Process - What does feeling this way say about me? - Why is this (sadness) happening to me? - How can I change this (sadness)?

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: 

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy An Integration of MBSR and Cognitive Therapy A Blend of Acceptance and Change models Customized for Depression

Mindfulness-Based Stress ReductionMBSR: 

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction MBSR University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Stress Reduction Clinic,1979 Jon Kabat-Zinn, Ph.D., founder 8 Week Program Participants with a wide range of medical problems, including chronic pain, anxiety disorders, depression, hypertension, heart disease and cancer. Program outlined in the book “Full Catastrophe Living, Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain and Illness”

A Definition of Mindfulness: 

Mindfulness means paying attention, in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally Jon Kabat-Zinn A Definition of Mindfulness

How Does Cognitive Therapy Prevent Depressive Relapse?: 

How Does Cognitive Therapy Prevent Depressive Relapse? Teaches Patients in Depressed Mood to: -Switch out of a habitual cognitive mode of mind -Decenter - thoughts are not necessarily me and not necessarily true -Turn towards the Difficult -Change Degree of Belief

How Does MBCT Prevent Depressive Relapse?: 

How Does MBCT Prevent Depressive Relapse? Teaches Recovered Depressed Patients Regardless of Mood: -Automatic to Intentional Mode -Avoidance to Curiosity & Acceptance -‘Thinking About’ to ‘Directly Experiencing’ -Judging & Fixing to Non-Doing & Being

The Nature of the Work in MBCT: 

The Nature of the Work in MBCT Systematic Training to Become More Aware Moment to Moment Bodily Sensations Pleasant & Unpleasant Events Thoughts & Feelings as Mental Events Formal Practice Body Scan Mindful Stretching/Yoga Mindfulness of Breath/Body/Sounds & Thoughts

The Nature of the Work in MBCT: 

The Nature of the Work in MBCT Opportunity to Be Mindful Using Activities Investigating Pleasure & Mastery Taking Skillful Action – Preparing for Relapse Inquiry/Discussion of Symptoms & Experiences of Depression Informal Practice 3 Minute Breathing Space Mindfulness of Everyday Activities

3 Minute Breathing SpaceProvides a way to step out of automatic pilot mode and reconnect with the present moment: 

3 Minute Breathing Space Provides a way to step out of automatic pilot mode and reconnect with the present moment AWARENESS Acknowledge & register your experience, even if it is unwanted GATHERING Bring full attention to the breath, as an anchor to awareness & stillness EXPANDING Awareness of the body as a whole, your posture and facial expression

Rates of Depressive Relapse for Patients with 3 or More Past Episodes: 

Rates of Depressive Relapse for Patients with 3 or More Past Episodes P<.005; J Consult Clin Psych (2000) MBCT 66% TAU 34%

Single Site Replication1 Year Follow Up: 

Single Site Replication 1 Year Follow Up TAU 22% MBCT 64% P<.05; J Consult Clin Psych (2004)

Meditation and the Brain: 

Meditation and the Brain Frontal - Limbic pathways Numerous studies ongoing Meditators versus non-meditators

PET Scans and Meditation: 

PET Scans and Meditation Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Left associated with feelings of happiness & well-being and approach behaviours Right associated with feelings of distress and avoidance behaviours Meditation Increased left sided anterior activation compared to controls Over 8 weeks participants began to shift in the same direction as Buddhist monks

Future Directions and Research: 

Future Directions and Research Pilot Studies: Anxiety disorders including panic disorder without agoraphobia Actively depressed Co-occurring addictive and mood disorders Binge eating disorder Immune response to Influenza vaccine

Summary: 

Summary MBCT was designed to reduce relapse by helping patients disengage from ruminative thinking triggered by sad moods. MBCT helps patients shift their relationship to thoughts/ sensations/feelings without trying to change belief in thought content. It is ideal for patients in recovery because depression need not be present for them to practice Shown to reduce relapse rate by 50% in patients with recurrent depression.

Resources: 

Resources Books: Full Catastrophe Living, by Jon Kabat-Zinn Heal Thyself; Mindfulness in Medicine, by Saki Santorelli Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression, by Z. Segal, J. Williams & J. Teasdale Wherever You Go There You Are, by Jon Kabat-Zinn Web Sites: www.ottawamindfulnessclinic.com www.umassmed.edu Dr. Kerri McGuire: mcgkerri@gmail.com

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