LUNGS

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LUNGS:

LUNGS

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION A pair of respiratory organs situated in thoracic cavity. Rt & Lt lungs are separated by mediastinum Texture: Spongy Colour Young :Brown Adults: mottled black due to deposition of carbon Weight: Rt :600gms Lt:550gms

GROSS ANATOMY OF LUNGS:

Shape: conical Apex, Base 3 borders : Anterior Posterior Inferior 2 surfaces: Costal Medial Ant: Mediastinal Post: Vertebral GROSS ANATOMY OF LUNGS

APEX:

APEX Blunt Lies above the anterior end of 1 st rib Reaches 2.5cm above the medial 1/3 of clavicle. Coverings: Cervical pleura Suprapleural membrane Grooved by: Subclavian Vein Subclavian Artery

BASE:

BASE Semilunar & concave Rests on dome of diaphragm Rt dome is higher

BORDERS :

BORDERS Anterior border : corresponds to anterior ( Costomediastinal ) line of pleural reflection Deeply notched in left lung posterior to 5 th costal cartilage by pericardium and extends vertically downwards to form lingula .

PowerPoint Presentation:

Thick and ill defined Extends from C7 to T10 Fits into para vertebral gutter. Inferior border Thin and sharp. Separates the costal surface from medial surface Posterior border

SURFACES:

SURFACES Costal : is in contact with costal pleura and overlying thoracic wall

FISSURES AND LOBES OF LUNG:

FISSURES AND LOBES OF LUNG OBLIQUE FISSURE : Begins posteriorly at T5 Passes antero inferiorly in a spiral course to meet the inferior margin close to 6 th costo chondral junction .

PowerPoint Presentation:

Posterior : vertebral part Anterior : mediastinal part RELATIONS OF POSTERIOR PART Vertebral bodies Intervertebral discs Posterior intercostal vessels Splanchnic nerves MEDIAL SURFACE

RELATIONS OF ANTERIOR PART:

RELATIONS OF ANTERIOR PART Right side Rt atrium Small part of rt ventricle Superior vena cava Lower part of Rt brachiocephalic vein Azygos vein Oesophagus Inferior vena cava Trachea Rt Phrenic nerve Rt vagus nerve

RELATIONS OF ANTERIOR PART:

Left side Lt ventricle Pulmonary trunk Arch of aorta Descending thoracic aorta Left subclavian artery Thoracic duct Lt brachiocephalic vein Left Phrenivc nerve Left vagus nerve Left recurrent laryngeal nerve RELATIONS OF ANTERIOR PART

FISSURES AND LOBES OF LUNG:

HORIZONTAL FISSURE: Extends from anterior margin at the level of 4 th costal cartilage Runs horizontally backwards to meet the oblique fissure in the mid axillary line Pulmonary pleura extends into fissures of lungs so that lobes can move over each other during respiration. FISSURES AND LOBES OF LUNG

ROOT OF THE LUNG:

ROOT OF THE LUNG The root is a short broad pedicle,connects medial surface of lung to mediastinum . Lies opposite the bodies of 5 th , 6 th and 7 th thoracic vertebra.

HILUM:

HILUM Is a large depressed area that lies near the centre of medial surface Various structures enter or leave the lung via its hilum .

STRUCTURES IN THE ROOT:

STRUCTURES IN THE ROOT Bronchus: Principal on left side Eparterial & hyparterial on rt side Pulmonary artery Two pulmonary veins: Superior Inferior Bronchial arteries : One on rt Two on left Bronchial veins Ant & post pulm plexus of nerves Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes Areolar tissue Lymphatics

ARRANGEMENT OF STRUCTURES IN THE ROOT:

ARRANGEMENT OF STRUCTURES IN THE ROOT BEFORE BACKWARDS Superior pulmonary vein Pulmonary artery Bronchus

ARRANGEMENT OF STRUCTURES IN THE ROOT:

ABOVE DOWNWARDS Right side Eparterial bronchus Pulmonary artery Hyparterial bronchus Inferior Pulmonary vein ARRANGEMENT OF STRUCTURES IN THE ROOT

ARRANGEMENT OF STRUCTURES IN THE ROOT:

ABOVE DOWNWARDS Left side Pulmonary artery Bronchus Inferior pulmonary vein ARRANGEMENT OF STRUCTURES IN THE ROOT

Blood supply of lungs:

Blood supply of lungs Arterial Supply: Bronchial arteries : nutrition to lungs Rt side: one: Branch of Rt 3 rd posterior intercostal artery or upper left bronchial artery Lt side : two Branches of descending thoracic aorta opposite T5 Venous drainage: Two bronchial veins on each side Rt side : drain into azygos Lt side : Left superior intercostal vein Greater part is drained by pulmonary veins

Nerve Supply & lymphatic drainage of lungs:

Nerve Supply & lymphatic drainage of lungs Parasympathetic : Vagus Sympathetic :T2-T5 Lymphatics : Superficial Deep All drain into broncho pulmonary lymph nodes Superficial vessels have numerous valves Deep vessels have few or no valves.

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