alzheimer disease

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It is useful presentation, the pictures make it very nice.

Presentation Transcript

Alzheimer's DISEASE : 

Alzheimer's DISEASE

INTRODUCTION : 

INTRODUCTION Neurodegenerative disorder most common cause of dementia in elderly Clinically, apparent as insidious impairment of higher intellectual function, with alteration in mood and behaviour

● Later, progressive disorientation, memory loss and aphasia, indicate severe cortical dysfunction ● Later, patient becomes disabled, mute and immobile : 

● Later, progressive disorientation, memory loss and aphasia, indicate severe cortical dysfunction ● Later, patient becomes disabled, mute and immobile

Morphology : 

Morphology ● Variable degree of cortical atrophy, widening of the cerebral sulci in frontal, parietal, temporal lobe● Microscopic abnormalities: a) Neuritic plaques b) Neurofibrillary tangles c) Amyloid angiopathy

Neuritic plaques : 

Neuritic plaques Neuritic plaques are focal, spherical collections of dilated, tortuous neuritic processes (dystrophic neurites) around a central amyloid core Range in size from 20-200 m in diameter Microglial cells and astrocytes present peripherally Found in hippocampus and amygdala

Slide 7: 

Dystrophic neurites contains abnormal synaptic vesicles and mitochondria Amyloid core contain several abnormal proteins, predominantly, Aβ (derived from APP) Other components: components of complement cascade, proinflammatory cytokines, apolipoproteins

Slide 8: 

Neurofibrillary tangles are bundles of filaments in the cytoplasm of neurons that displace or encircle the nucleus Commonly found in cortical neurons, amygdala, hippocampus, forebrain Composed of paired helical filaments along with some straight filaments

Slide 9: 

● Major component of paired helical filaments is abnormally hyperphosphorylated form of protein, tau, (tau is an axonal microtubule-associated protein that enhances microtubule assembly) ● Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) : deposition of Aβ40

Slide 10: 

Granulovascular degeneration: formation of small, clear intraneuronal cytoplasmic vacuoles In hippocampus, olfactory bulb

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Normal brain AD Brain

Pathogenesis : 

Pathogenesis

Symptoms : 

Symptoms -- Initial Forgetfulness; other memory disturbances Language deficits Loss of learned motor skills Loss of mathematical skills -- Finally Patient become mute; unable to walk

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